 

Quasar accretion disk mapping by gravitational microlensing
Ledvina, Lukáš ; Heyrovský, David (advisor) ; Horák, Jiří (referee)
Quasar microlensing is a relatively newly explored phenomenon, which is ideally suited for studying the spatial distribution of emission from the innermost accretion disc. By now we know many macrolensed quasars, in which we can observe multiple images formed by the deflection of light in the gravitational field of an intervening galaxy. In case one of these images passes directly through the stellar population of the galaxy, it can be additionally microlensed by individual stars. The gravitational field of these stars forms a caustic network for light passing by. When a quasar accretion disc crosses behind this network, induced changes can be observed in the light curve as well as in the spectrum. In the first part of this thesis we study the statistics of the time intervals between successive caustic crossings. In the second part we use a fully relativistic Kerrmetric thindisc model for studying the light curve of a foldcaustic crossing and its dependence on the accretion disc parameters. In the last part we simulate changes in the Xray ironline profile during a foldcaustic crossing. We find characteristic spectral features formed on the line, and derive their analytical description. Finally, we map the maximum strength of microlensinggenerated peaks on the spectral line for different...


Resolving stellar surfaces with binary gravitational microlensing
Pejcha, Ondřej ; Heyrovský, David (advisor) ; Dovčiak, Michal (referee)
Binary gravitational microlensing has demonstrated excellent prospects for studying the surface brightness distribution of stars. In this work we study the extendedsource eects that aect the amplication of the source ux. We identify regions in the geometry that are sensitive to the extended source and nd previously unknown areas between facing cusps of multipart caustics. We nd out that the probability of detecting the extendedsource eect can be as much as two times higher than the probability of observing pure caustic crossing. We explore the chromaticity of binary microlensing and compare two classes of models of limb darkening. We describe spectral changes during binary microlensing and compare their amplitude to the pointlens case. Finally, we investigate the linear fold approximation and nd signicant residuals even in cases favorable for the method.


Chaos v porušených polích černých děr
Witzany, Vojtěch ; Semerák, Oldřich (advisor) ; Heyrovský, David (referee)
The loss of complete geodesic integrability is one of the important consequences (and thus indicators) of deviation from the Kerrtype spacetime. Indeed, it has been confirmed many times in the literature that even a highly symmetric perturbation of the Kerr or Schwarzschild metric can make the free testparticle motion chaotic. In this thesis, we study the testparticle dynamics in the field of a Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by a thin disc or ring, using, however, Newton's gravity with a simple "pseudo Newtonian" potential to mimic the black hole. The Poincaré sections show that the (pseudo)Newtonian system is slightly more chaotic than the general relativistic one. The difference seems to be correlated with the phasespace allowed region being more open towards the center in the pseudoNewtonian case. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)

 

Electromagnetic Waves in Dispersiveand Refractive Relativistic Systems
Bezděková, Barbora ; Bičák, Jiří (advisor) ; Heyrovský, David (referee)
Study of light rays (light world lines) plays a significant role in many of astro physical applications. Light rays are mainly studied in terms of socalled grav itational lensing. However, the majority of studies are mainly focused on light propagation in vacuum. If the refractive and dispersive medium characterised by refractive index n is considered, effects occurring due to the medium presence need to be taken into account, which significantly complicates the problem. In the present thesis, rays propagating through simple refractive and dispersive systems, such as plane differentially sheared medium, are studied. In order to simplify the problem, the Hamiltonian equations of motion are used. The ray trajectories in the vicinity of Kerr black hole as well as accessible regions for the rays are also studied. Radial variation of the medium velocity is considered. Due to the recent increase of publications focused on the gravitational lensing in plasma, a detailed review summarizing the results obtained recently is included. 1

 
 
 

Určování parametrů temné energie a modifikované gravitace v rámci projektu LSST
Vraštil, Michal ; Prouza, Michal (advisor) ; Heyrovský, David (referee)
Temnáenergietvořícípřibližně70%hmotyvesmíruz·stávájednouznejvětšch záhad moderní fyziky. K pochopení její podstaty jsou potřeba přesná kosmolog ická měření. Jedním z projekt· zkoumající tuto exotickou formu hmoty bude i Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, který pom·že potvrdit či vyvrátit standardní kosmologický model (ΛCDM). Pro úspěch projektu je potřeba prozkoumat r·zné teorie temné energie. Jednou z alternativních teoríí vysvětlujících urychlenou expanzi vesmíru je tzv. chameleoní gravitace. Chameleon je nové skalární pole s hmotou závisející na okolní hustotě. V hustých prostředích jako je například Sluneční soustava získává pole velkou hmotu a propaguje se pouze na malých vzdálenostech díky čemuž m·že uniknout standardním test·m gravitace. V prá ci mimo jiné studujeme chování chameleoního pole v okolí hvězd a v galaxiích. Ukazujeme také za jakých okolností je toto pole možné detekovat pomocí spek troskopických měření a slabého čočkování.
