National Repository of Grey Literature 20 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Novel modified nucleosides with antiviral or cytostatic activity
Tokarenko, Anna ; Hocek, Michal (advisor) ; Rádl, Stanislav (referee) ; Dvořák, Dalimil (referee)
A general and modular synthetic approach to 4-substituted phenyl, 2-substituted pyridin- 5-yl and 5-substituted pyridin-2-yl 2′-C-methyl-C-ribonucleosides as potential anti-HCV agents was developed. Addition of halo(het)aryllithium reagents to benzylated 2-C-methyl-D- ribonolactone gave the corresponding hemiketals, which were subsequently converted to the β-anomeric benzyl-protected bromo(het)aryl-C-nucleosides via either direct reduction (in the case of phenyl derivative) or acetylation followed by reduction of the resulting hemiketal acetates (in the case of pyridyl derivatives). The key halogenated (het)aryl-C-nucleoside intermediates were further transformed by Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling, hydroxylation and amination reactions affording series of protected C-nucleosides with small hydrophilic and hydrophobic substituents. The final protecting group removal was rather problematic, and different debenzylation methods, such as hydrogenation on Pd/C or treatment with BCl3, had to be optimized for each derivative to minimize the formation of side-products. The final C- nucleosides were also converted into their 5′-O-triphosphates, and biological activity screenings revealed that none of the free C-nucleosides possesses any antiviral activity in the HCV replicon assay, and none of their NTPs...
Development of new syntheses of condensed aromatic compounds
Kaiser, Reinhard Peter ; Kotora, Martin (advisor) ; Starý, Ivo (referee) ; Dvořák, Dalimil (referee)
This work is divided into two parts that are focused on the synthesis and assessment of photophysical properties of two structurally related compounds: (i) 9,9'-spirobifluorenes (SBFs) and (ii) dispiroindeno[2,1-c]fluorenes (DS-IFs). (i) In the first part, a five-step synthetic approach to SBFs was developed and as the crucial step was used an intermolecular [2+2+2] cyclotrimerization of symmetrically or unsymmetrically substituted diynols with alkynes catalyzed by Rh-complexes. Catalyst screening showed that Wilkinson's catalyst (RhCl(PPh3)3) had the highest efficiency in yielding 1,2,3,4-substituted fluorenols - the key intermediates. The fluorenols were then converted into SBFs bearing various electron-donating and -withdrawing groups, aromatic substituents, and -extended aromatic hydrocarbon moieties (PAHs). Altogether 19 different SBFs were prepared and their photophysical properties screened. The fluorescent emission maxima em were in the range of 315-389 nm with excellent quantum yields s (up to 1.00). As far as the substituent effect is concerned the presence of electron-withdrawing substituents on the SBF scaffold results in the red-shift of the emission maxima. (ii) In the second part, a similar synthetic strategy was applied for synthesis DS-IFs. In this instance was utilized again the...
Development of new pathways for syntheses of sesquiterpenoids
Topolovčan, Nikola ; Kotora, Martin (advisor) ; Dvořák, Dalimil (referee) ; Pour, Milan (referee)
This work consists of four consecutive parts, each dealing with syntheses of structurally diverse compounds. The syntheses were based on the methods within the domain of transition-metal catalyzed and/or mediated reactions with particular emaphasis on the application of organozirconium chemistry. 1. A method for synthesis of tricyclic condensed hydrocarbons possessing 5(6)-7-6(aryl) framework was developed. It is based on reaction of bicyclic zirconacyclopentenes, prepared by oxidative dimerization of enynes on a low-valent zirconocene species (Negishi's reagent), with ortho-halobenzaldehydes in the presence of various additives. The presence of two different centers of reactivity - the sp2 C-Zr and sp3 C-Zr bond - allowed sequential functionalization of each bond. Thanks to its higher nucleophilicity, the sp3 C-Zr bond reacted preferentially with the carbonyl carbon of the aldehyde yielding an oxazirconacycloheptene. The subsequent transmetallation of the remaining sp2 C-Zr bond with CuCl in the presence of other additives (catalysts) enabled an intramolecular cross-coupling reaction with the aryl halide moiety furnishing the desired tricyclic products in reasonable yields. The scope of the reaction with respect to differently functionalized reactants was assessed, as well as its mechanistic...
Synthesis of Purine - Amino Acid Conjugates
Čapek, Petr ; Hocek, Michal (advisor) ; Kotora, Martin (referee) ; Dvořák, Dalimil (referee) ; Mazal, Ctibor (referee)
4. Conclusions A simple and efficient approach to the synthesis of (purin-6-yl)alanines based on Negishi cross-coupling reactions of 6-iodopurines and iodozinc- alanines applicable to the synthesis of both racemic and optically pure compounds was developed. Though analogous reactions were used before for the synthesis of some simple aryl- or hetarylaranines, this was the first successful use in the functionalization ofprotected nucleobases and nucleosides. A practical method for synthesis of enantiomerically pure (purin-6_ yl)phenylalanines by palladium catalyzeď, copper mediated Stille cross-coupling reactions ofprotected 4-(trimethylstanyl)phenylalanines and 6-iodopurines was developed. This method was used in the synthesis of series of (purin_6_ yl)phenylalanines (bases and nucleosides) varying in substitution in position 9 of purine scaffold and in absolute configuration on o-carbon ofphenylalanine. The shaughnessy method for the Suzuki cross-coupling reactions in aqueous media was further optimized and applied to the single-step synthesis of novel optically pure (adenin-8-yl)phenylalanines and (purine_6_yl)phenyl_ alanines. wide tolerance of this methodology towards variety of functionalities and its applicability to 1abile systems was demonstrated particularly by the very first examples of couplings...
Synthesis of axially chiral pyridin N-oxides and their application in organocatalysis
Hrdina, Radim ; Kotora, Martin (advisor) ; Černý, Miloslav (referee) ; Dvořák, Dalimil (referee) ; Starý, Ivo (referee)
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Synthesis of polysubstituted pyrimidines with potential anti-inflammatory properties
Kalčic, Filip ; Janeba, Zlatko (advisor) ; Dvořák, Dalimil (referee)
This thesis is engaged in the synthesis of polysubstituted pyrimidines with anti- inflammatory properties. Such molecules can inhibit production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The aim of this study was to enhance water-solubility and anti-inflammatory efficacy of such derivatives via structural modifications of the lead scaffold. Among applied synthetic tools, the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling was the prevalent reaction, however, many other synthetic procedures (Heck reaction, condensation, borylation, ozonolysis, nucleophilic substitution, etc.) were utilized as well. Overall, 43 final products were prepared. The anti-inflammatory efficacy (inhibition of PGE2 production) was successfully increased as the most potent compound achieved three orders of magnitude higher activity compared to the current lead structure WQE-134. Furthermore, no general influence of the length of the substituent in the C5 position of pyrimidine (C5pyr) on the anti-inflammatory efficacy of synthesized compounds was observed. Significant bioavailability obstacle in future development of the current lead WQE-134 is its poor solubility which was successfully enhanced by introduction of heteroatom bearing moieties to C5pyr. The most water-soluble compound achieved two orders of magnitude higher solubility than WQE-134 while...
Functionalization of pyrimidine nucleobases by direct C-H arylations.
Čerňová, Miroslava ; Hocek, Michal (advisor) ; Dvořák, Dalimil (referee) ; Rádl, Stanislav (referee)
Within presented dissertation thesis Pd-catalyzed direct C-H arylation of 1,3-dimethyluracil to position 5 or 6 was developed. An interesting dichotomy in the regioselectivity and mechanism of reactions were observed. A reaction of 1,3-dimethyluracil with diverse aryl halides performed in the absence of CuI led preferentially to 5-aryl-1,3-dimethyluracils, while with the addition of CuI 6-aryl-1,3-dimethyluracils were formed as the major products. Reactions mediated only in the presence of copper(I) iodide (in the absence of a Pd-catalyst) proceeded with lower yields but led exclusively to 6-arylated derivatives. In order to prepare free 5- and 6 arylated uracils for biological activity screening, the developed methodologies for the direct C-H arylations were applied to various 1,3-protected uracils. Benzyl-protected uracil was selected as the best candidate both in terms of stability during the arylations, as well as facile cleavage of the benzyl groups during deprotection of arylated uracils. Synthesis of various substituted 5- and 6-aryl-1,3-dibenzyluracils proceeded with the same regioselectivity as with the model compound 1,3-dimethyluracil. For deprotection of synthesized derivatives either transfer hydrogenolysis over Pd/C or treatment with BBr3 in case of uracils bearing bulky aromatic...
Synthesis of Specifically Substituted Heterocycles via Catalytic Reactions
Kratochvíl, Jiří ; Pour, Milan (advisor) ; Kotora, Martin (referee) ; Dvořák, Dalimil (referee)
Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry Candidate Mgr. Jiří Kratochvíl Supervisor prof. RNDr. Milan Pour, Ph.D. Title of Doctoral Thesis Synthesis of Specifically Substituted Heterocycles via Catalytic Reactions This Ph.D. thesis deals with the synthesis of γ-alkylidene-α,β-unsaturated δ-lactones and lactams. Migita- Stille cross-coupling served as the key step in their preparation. Catalysis with palladium black was applied to the synthesis of the lactones and we demonstrated that it doesn't act as heterogeneous catalyst. Instead, it's only a precursor for catalytically active species, which is generated in situ and its true nature is unknown. The palladium nanoparticles are most likely responsible for the catalysis, although involvement of complexed atomic palladium cannot be excluded. Palladium black catalysis was also successfully applied to the synthesis of a series of structurally different substrates, which demonstrates its versatility and it was also proved that the catalyst can be easily recycled by simple filtration. An unusual Tsuji-Trost reaction then enabled transfer of the alkylidene substituent of the lactones to C5 furnishing polysubstituted heterocycles.
Synthesis of New Types of Biologically Active Substances Using the Organometallic Compounds
Korotvička, Aleš ; Kotora, Martin (advisor) ; Dvořák, Dalimil (referee) ; Starý, Ivo (referee)
This work consists of four separate chapters. Although they are seemingly different projects, they have a common feature - the application of organometallic chemistry. 1. Lusianthridin and denbinobin, the phenanthrene derivatives, can be found in plants of the family Orchidaceae. They exhibit cytostatic activity against cancer of human lung and ovarian and against promyelocytic leukemia. Therefore, new synthetic methods for these substances may be applied in research and development of new bioactive compounds. I prepared 9,10- disubstituted phenanthrenes through reactions of biphenylene with alkynes, which were catalyzed by iridium complexes. Phenanthridine derivatives are found naturally in the group benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids. The most famous of these include sanguinarine and chelerythrine. Sanguinarine selectively induces apoptosis (planned cell death) of human cancer cells and, therefore, is investigated as a potential antitumor agent. Chelerythrine selectively inhibits protein kinase C, leading again to apoptosis. I have studied reactions of biphenylene with nitriles catalyzed by rhodium complexes that have not been described yet. By this, I prepared a series of 6-substituted phenanthridines. 2. Carboranes are artificially prepared organic compounds of boron, which are not represented in...

National Repository of Grey Literature : 20 records found   1 - 10next  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
8 DVOŘÁK, Daniel
16 DVOŘÁK, David
4 Dvořák, Dalibor
8 Dvořák, Daniel
16 Dvořák, David
2 Dvořák, Dennis
5 Dvořák, Dominik
1 Dvořák, Dušan
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