National Repository of Grey Literature 81 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Using survey questions to measure preferences: lessons from an experimental validation in Kenya
Bauer, Michal ; Chytilová, Julie ; Miguel, E.
Can a short survey instrument reliably measure a range of fundamental economic preferences across diverse settings? We focus on survey questions that systematically predict behavior in incentivized experimental tasks among German university students (Becker et al. 2016) and were implemented among representative samples across the globe (Falk et al. 2018). This paper presents results of an experimental validation conducted among low-income individuals in Nairobi, Kenya. We find that quantitative survey measures -- hypothetical versions of experimental tasks -- of time preference, attitude to risk and altruism are good predictors of choices in incentivized experiments, suggesting these measures are broadly experimentally valid. At the same time, we find that qualitative questions -- self-assessments -- do not correlate with the experimental measures of preferences in the Kenyan sample. Thus, caution is needed before treating self-assessments as proxies of preferences in new contexts.\n
What behavioural economics can teach us about prevention: another way of fighting Covid-19
Bauer, Michal ; Chytilová, Julie
Every one of us can help limit the spread of the Covid-19 virus today, through our everyday behaviour. Research from behavioural science to date has shown how individuals, private organizations and state institutions can all contribute to changes in behaviour that are effective in prevention. Thanks to the studies that have been carried out so far, we know quite a lot about how the virus spreads most frequently and what kinds of behaviour are most effective in preventing that spread. Washing our hands with soap, avoiding touching our faces and stifling any coughs or sneezes into the air are all very effective. However, research has shown that simply being informed about all this is not sufficient for people to change their behaviour. People have a tendency to forget, which is enhanced by tiredness and inattention, many people also tend to procrastinate and not to do things even though they are aware of wanting to do them. Furthermore, it is difficult to change our long-established habits. Most existing research into behavioural prevention is, quite naturally, from developing countries, where the spread of infectious diseases has been a more topical problem than in the economically developed countries. These studies have shown that frequent, simple reminders can be very beneficial. Making hand-washing facilities available to the public does not mean that people will use them. Their placement within the public space and their visibility play a key role. We must think carefully about how to create an environment in which the target\nbehaviour is easily carried out, people are constantly reminded of it, and it gradually becomes automatic. Our habits, which are very hard for us to shake off, often act as a barrier to regular, proper hand-washing at home. People tend to wash their hands too quickly and not thoroughly enough. Even when we know how to wash our hands properly, doing so systematically, several times a day for twenty seconds at a time is no easy task.
The Wage Curve and Regional Salary Differentials in the Czech Republic
Trubelík, Ivan ; Mysíková, Martina (advisor) ; Chytilová, Julie (referee)
The phenomenon of the Wage curve, discovered by Blanchflower and Oswald, has shown a remarkable persistence in time and across different countries. It relates the regional unemployment rate negatively to the absolute level of wages. This work examines the presence of the wage curve in the Czech Republic by two different models using district level data. A panel model is constructed for 2008-2017 and a cross-sectional model with additional control variables is specified for 2011. The data on average wage in this work are related to specific employees with multiple sources of income. The wage curve is then found with a coefficient of -0.42 for the longitudinal analysis and -0.78 for isolated cross- section. However, after including fixed regional effects in the panel model, the wage-unemployment elasticity diminishes to zero. The other part of this work studies the convergence in the Czech Republic district wage levels. By means of σ and β convergence indicators, it is concluded that the wages converged in the period of 2008-2017, with a faster rate in years 2013-2017. JEL Classification J22, J31, J51, R15 Keywords Wage curve, Unemployment, Regional wage, Czech Republic, Labor economics, Wage conver- gence Title The Wage Curve and Regional Salary Differen- tials in the Czech Republic Author's e-mail...
The impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic on mental health
Bartoš, V. ; Cahlíková, J. ; Bauer, Michal ; Chytilová, Julie
In addition to direct effects on physical health and economic situation, the coronavirus pandemic also significantly affects the population's mental health. Using a set of questions that identify symptoms of depression and anxiety, we monitor the extent of these problems in a large representative sample of the Czech population throughout the pandemic.\n
Gender Differences in Correlation between Social Relationships and Happiness: Cross-Country Analysis
Pashkina, Anastasia ; Chytilová, Julie (advisor) ; Želinský, Tomáš (referee)
This bachelor thesis examines gender differences in the correlation between social relationships and happiness and how these differences vary according to the Gender Inequality Index. The data from the World Values Survey and the Human Development Report for 48 countries are used. The analysis consists of three sections. The first section examines gender differences in the correlation between social relationships and happiness using two separate datasets for females and males. In the second section, the significance of the studied gender differences is explored using one overall dataset for females and males. In the third section, the countries are divided into groups according to the Gender Inequality Index, and separate datasets of each group are used to investigate whether gender differences in correlation between social relationships and happiness have different significance among the groups. The thesis finds that the gender differences in the correlation between specific determinants of social relationships and happiness exist and that for the countries with various Gender Inequality Index, the gender differences mentioned above have diverse significance.
Website Development as a Credence Good: A Field Experiment
Appelt, Šimon ; Chytilová, Julie (advisor) ; Špolcová, Dominika (referee)
There are many markets for credence goods which have been assessed in recent economic research, including taxi services, car mechanics, health care or electronics repairs. How- ever, as no previous research inspects solely an Internet-based environment, the thesis examines the web development market as the representative of a new potential segment of markets for credence goods. In particular, the discrimination in overcharging based on gender or technical experience of a customer is assessed. For this reason, a natural field experiment was designed and subsequently, 341 Czech web developers and IT firms were approached via email to collect the proposed prices for a fictitious E-shop development contract. After the analysis of the outcome variables, the multiple linear regression model with the ordinary least squares (OLS) method was employed. The results suggest that male customers tend to get higher price proposals than women. The second implication is that customers who signalled technical experience in the email inquiry appear to get higher prices than the non-technical customers. However, the outcomes and the differ- ences in proposed prices were not significant among the treatment groups. Other factors, including the number of employees, the region where the company resides and proposed...
Male Attitude and Family Planning Practices in Angola
Toulová, Natálie ; Chytilová, Julie (advisor) ; Šedivý, Marek (referee)
Natálie Toulová Abstract Men's involvement in their partners' lives can be an essential driver in terms of the utilization of family planning programs. Using cross-sectional data from the Angola Demographic and Health Survey from 2015-2016, this thesis investigates the factors influencing family planning use from the men's point of view. Apart from the expected positive correlation of education, age, place of residence, and economic status with contraceptive use, it is hypothesized that men's attitude, knowledge, and fertility preferences affect contraceptive use and unmet need of their spouses. Using logistic and probit regressions, the results of this thesis point out a significant positive relationship between men's knowledge of contraception, their fertile preferences, and their partners' use of contraception. Lastly, the thesis lays down a few suggestions for future research. .
Video-Gaming and Adolescent Academic Performance
Simachyova, Valeriya ; Chytilová, Julie (advisor) ; Chadimová, Kateřina (referee)
Video-gaming is a frequent choice for leisure-time activity among young males and females in advanced economies. This thesis studies cross-national differences in the association between the academic performance of students of both genders and video- gaming. The data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018 wave was used to estimate the educational achievements in reading, science, and mathematics of over 156000 students with varying reported frequency of single- and multiplayer gaming in 29 countries. It was found that male single-player gamers outperform their non-gaming counterparts. On the other hand, there is no association between academic performance and single-player games for female students. Multiplayer gaming is found to have a negative relationship with the educational achievements of female and male students, regardless of time-dedication to gaming.
Determinants of Induced Abortion in Selected European Countries
Michálková, Tereza ; Chytilová, Julie (advisor) ; Chorna, Olena (referee)
The thesis scrutinizes potential impacts of various socio-economic determ- inants on the legally induced abortions in Europe by examining a sample of 15 European countries for the 2007-2017 period. For the panel data re- gression, fixed effects estimation and random effects estimation, both with the Newey-West robust standard errors, are applied and compared with the Hausman test. The significant results generally correspond to the pre- vious studies. Specifically, both crude divorce rate and female unemploy- ment propose a positive impact on abortions and crude birth rate influences abortions negatively. The only exception opposing the previous studies is the female tertiary education that signals substantial negative impact on abortions in the context of European countries. In addition, the thesis in- troduces new economic variables to the topic of abortions (social benefits, GDP growth rate, GDP per capita and political stability index). Nonethe- less, except for the positive effect of GDP per capita on abortions, the other economic variables did not appear to be significant in the preferred models. Keywords Abortion ratio, legally induced abortions, socio-economic determinants, fixed effects, random effects, European countries.
Essays on Poverty and the Socio-economic Behaviour of the Poor
Želinský, Tomáš ; Chytilová, Julie (advisor) ; Gangadharan, Lata (referee) ; Servátka, Maroš (referee) ; Reggiani, Tommaso (referee)
Tomáš Želinský: Essays on poverty and the socio-economic behaviour of the poor. Doctoral thesis. Charles University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies. 2020, 134 pages. Advisor: doc. PhDr. Julie Chytilová, Ph.D. This doctoral thesis consists of three essays that address the topic of poverty and the socio- economic behaviour of the poor. In the first essay, we focus on an economic dimension of subjective well-being, studying how closely subjective perceptions of individual economic well-being are related to objective measures of real economic conditions as they change over time. Our results suggest that people react to general economic conditions to a limited extent, and do not immediately update their perceptions according to real conditions. The following two essays primarily focus on the socio-economic behaviour of poor Roma. In the second essay, we first aim to understand the role of parents and peers in the shaping of social norms adopted by children in relatively closed, poor mono-ethnic Roma communities. We show that, on average, children's norms are more correlated with those of their peers than with those of their parents. We also show that children's norms converge to their parents' norms until the age of around twelve-thirteen, which is when many Roma children...

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