National Repository of Grey Literature 16 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Changes of sensory active substances during ripening of selected type of natural cheese
Sýkora, Michal ; Buňková, Leona (referee) ; Gregor,, Tomáš (referee) ; Buňka, František (advisor)
The presented dissertation is a study focused on the characterization of sensory quality, especially the flavour of model samples of natural cheeses. Attention is aimed to the composition and content of volatile (sensory active) substances as important markers of flavour and free/bound fatty acids as their precursors. The headspace solid phase microextraction in conjunction with gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to determine volatiles. For the determination of fatty acids, the lipids were isolated from the sample with a solvent mixture of diethyl ether and petroleum ether, followed by esterification using a methanolic solution of boron trifluoride as a catalyst and final analysis by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The experimental part was divided into two experiments; in experiment I, Moravský bochník type cheeses (45 % fat in dry matter., 60 % dry matter) were analysed, in experiment II, Edam type cheeses (45 % fat in dry matter, 50 % dry matter). Model samples of cheeses were made at Tomas Bata University in Zlín. For all samples, a classical mesophilic culture containing Lactococcus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. was used, this was always supplemented with a suitable monoculture of thermophilic bacteria; in the case of Moravský bochník cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus and in the case of Edam cheeses Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum. The essence of both experiments was to assess the influence of the used microbial cultures on the above-mentioned parameters, at the same time their changes during the ripening of the cheeses were monitored. The results showed that the addition of thermophilic cultures, as well as the maturation process did not affect the number of fatty acids or volatiles, but significant differences were found in their content. The content of bound fatty acids decreased during cheese ripening due to ongoing lipolytic changes while increasing the content of free fatty acids and their subsequent degradation to volatile substances, which ultimately contribute to the taste and aroma of the cheese. Ketones and acids were the most quantitatively present in all samples. During maturation, contrary to expectations, the content of identified volatiles also decreased. The addition of the thermophilic cultures didn’t have a clear effect and varied depending on the maturation phase. In the first phase, although they showed more pronounced lipolytic activity, the subsequent metabolic processes - the breakdown of free fatty acids into volatile substances, compensated for these differences. These results confirm a significant share of the basic mesophilic culture in the formation of volatile substances, in particular the flavour of cheeses.
UTILIZATION OF FOOD PROCESSING WASTE FOR LACTIC ACID AND ETHANOL PRODUCTION
Hudečková, Helena ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Buňka, František (referee) ; Márová, Ivana (advisor)
The doctoral thesis is focused on the microbial production of lactic acid and ethanol using food processing waste as substrate. Coffee processing waste (spent coffee grounds), wine production waste (grape pomace) and orange processing waste (orange peel) were chosen as substrates for experiments. The theoretical part is dedicated to summarizing current knowledge about waste from food production and possibilities of its processing. It also deals with selected metabolites (lactic acid, ethanol) to which these wastes can be used. Part of the experiments was focused on the characterization and optimization of hydrolysis to maximize the amount of fermentable saccharides. Different combinations of chemical, physical and enzymatic hydrolysis of selected substrates have been tested. Subsequently, a suitable strain for lactic acid and ethanol production was searched for. In the case of lactic acid production, 7 bacterial strains were selected (Lactobacillus casei CCM 4798, Bacillus coagulans CCM 2013, Bacillus coagulans CCM 2658, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCM 1825T, Lactobacillus delbruckii subsp. bulgaricus CCM 7190, Lactobacillus plantarum CCM 7039T, Streptococcus thermophilus CCM 4757). These strains were first cultivated on the synthetic media containing different kind of saccharides. Afterward, the cultivation on the waste biomass hydrolysates were tested. In the case of ethanol production, 2 yeast strains kmeny (S. cerevisiae CNCTC 6646 a S. cerevisiae CNCTC 6651) were cultivated on hydrolysates of individual waste substrates. Subsequently, the experiments focused on the production of lactic acid and ethanol on hydrolysates of waste biomass in bioreactor were done. The last part of this doctoral thesis deals with the microaerobic pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass to increase the production of organic acids during the acetogenic phase of anaerobic digestion.
Monitoring of sensory active compounds during cheese production
Ryglová, Hana ; Buňka, František (referee) ; Vítová, Eva (advisor)
This work deals with monitoring of sensory active compounds during production of Edam cheeses, i.e. natural hard cheeses with low heat curd, and of processed cheeses, which were produced from Edam cheeses. Sensory active compounds contribute to overal flavour of cheese. They are volatile compounds, which include alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, fatty acids, esters, lactones, terpenes etc. These compounds were identified and quantified using SPME/GC/FID method in the model samples of Edam cheeses and processed cheeses, produced at Tomas Bata University in Zlin. In total 42 volatile compounds were identified, 6 aldehydes, 7 ketones, 15 alcohols, 6 esters and 8 acids. Differences in number of compounds identified, as well as in the contents of them, were found between samples. Effect of pasteurization on the contents and composition of the identified compounds was the most obvious in the samples of matured cheeses. In the samples of processed cheeses the effect of pasteurization was the most obvious in combination with prolonged heating during melting.
Formation of biofilm by probiotic bacteria and its processing to solid drug form.
Grossová, Marie ; Rittich, Bohuslav (referee) ; Buňka, František (referee) ; Márová, Ivana (advisor)
The aim of present work is cultivation of probiotic bacteria L. acidophilus, B. breve and B. longum in such a way that the culture forms cells clusters or comprehensive biofilm on the variety of free carriers. Biofilm formation of L. acidophilus on the silica from point of view bile and acid tolerance in gastrointestinal tract was studied. While the number of living cells in planktonic form (planktonic form) at pH 1 fell by 30 %, the viability of the biofilm cells was maintained to 90 % under the same environmental conditions. The biofilm culture showed also the protection against environment contained bile. Furthermore, the possibilities of drying procedures of biofilm cultures used as commercial technologies in pharmaceutical industry were studied. The comparison of freeze-drying and fluidization bed drying showed, that freeze-drying is more suitable method, which is able to achieve higher amount of viable cells after drying than fluidization bed drying. The effectivity of freeze-drying method is dependent on the selection of suitable cryprotective medium. In this case, about 90 % higher viability after freeze drying was achieved in comparison with fluidization bed drying. Finally, the industrial processing of probiotic strains into the solid dosage form was studied. Tablets should be produced at hardness between 70 and 90 N and water activity of tablet mixture can be maintained below 0.3. Consequently, the drying step of the tablets in a hermetically closed space with at least 10 % of silica gel must be ensured. Thereafter, the tablets contain (5.4 ± 0.7)109 viable cells after 6 months of drying process. Capsule production technology has no significant effect on the cell‘s viability during production. The triplex blistering foil for primary blistering of probiotic capsules was chosen. The triplex foil, which has low values of water vapour transition rate (0.07 g H2O / (m2 × day) and oxygen transition rate (0.01 cm3/m2 × day), was chosen. Other studied blistering foils commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry are not suitable for long storage of solid dosage forms contained probiotics.
Fragrance Allergens in Foods and Everyday Use Products
Divišová, Radka ; Buňka, František (referee) ; Hojerova,, Jarmila (referee) ; Omelková, Jiřina (advisor)
Fragrances are added to food, cosmetics and other products primarily for enhancement of their sensory quality (taste and/or aroma). However, the usage of these compounds is associated with the wide range of various adverse biological effects. Some fragrances widely used in cosmetics are proved to cause e.g. skin sensitization, rashes, dermatitis, headache, cough etc. To protect the health of consumers, European union approved the cosmetic directive (ES/1223/2009) that requires the labeling of 26 allergen fragrances on the final product label, if concentration exceeds the given level (0,01 % for rinse-off and 0,001 % for leave-on product). However, some producers hide the presence of allergens in the final product under the general term „aroma“. For this reason it is very important to monitor the content of these substances in cosmetic products. Fragrances are found not only in cosmetics, but the various types of food are also aromatized by them. Unlike cosmetics, the food producers are not obliged to label the presence of fragrance allergens on the packaging. Therefore, the monitoring of these fragrances is highly desirable because of the potential health risks they pose. The aim of this study was to develop a method for simultaneous determination of regulated fragrance allergens in food and everyday use products. The method based on extraction of analytes by solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography with FID detection (HS-SPME-GC-FID) was chosen on the basis of the literature review. The fiber CAR/PDMS provided the highest extraction efficiency among the SPME fibers tested. Univariate and multivariate data analysis were used to optimize the main parameters affecting microextraction process. The final method validation was performed in terms of linearity, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery, limits of detection and quantification. The optimized and validated method was applied to a wide range of products including cosmetics, aromatized food and fragranced toys. These products were also subjected to sensory evaluation especially in terms of taste and/or aroma (i.e. flavour), which may be associated with the content of the monitored fragrances. The profile test (EN ISO 13299) and seven-point category ordinal scale (ISO 4121) were used for sensory evaluation.
Modern Approaches in Qualitative Aspects of Foods Assessment
Tobolková, Blanka ; Omelka, Ladislav (referee) ; Rapta, Peter (referee) ; Buňka, František (referee) ; Polovka, Martin (advisor)
Antioxidant properties and some other characteristics of selected organic and conventional products (wine, spelt flours) were evaluated in view of their potential utilization as markers suitable for food unambiguous differentiation according to the affiliation to production system. Beside these, study of fruit juices stability during storage in dependence on different technological procedures of juice processing was performed. In both cases, combination of dominantly EPR and UV/VIS spectroscopy but also other methods (e.g., HPLC, AAS, electrophoresis) was applied to evaluate the stability and antioxidant properties of selected samples. Statistical methods, especially methods of multivariate statistics were used to assess the influence of production and technological-processing operations on antioxidant status of foods and their selected characteristics. Qualitative analysis of Slovak and foreign organic and conventional wines proved that their antioxidant properties are influenced by production system, vintage and variety. On the basis of statistical analysis, descriptors of AAE, kTEMPOL and %RS were selected as the most powerful markers for Slovak organic and conventional wines discrimination. The discrimination of white and red organic and conventional wines possessed 100% and 95.2% correctness, respectively. High correctness of differentiation of Slovak and foreign wines was also achieved. Monitored descriptors of antioxidant activity of spelt flours varied in dependence on season, origin, variety, production system and depend also on way of spelt treatment, although this effect is not so significant. It was also confirmed that the type of extraction agent substantially affects the composition of extracts including polyphenols and flavonoids concentration, affecting thus also their antioxidant activity. Mixture of 50% ethanol/water was selected as the most promising extraction system. Although the results of individual spectroscopic assays revealed high variability and often ambiguous trends, the differences found were sufficient for successful differentiation of both wines and spelt flour samples according to the selected criteria by multivariate statistical processing of the data. Influence of changes in technological procedures of fruit juice processing (nitrogen atmosphere application, utilization of caps with oxygen scavengers) on radical-scavenging properties of 100% pineapples juices with pieces of pineapple and 100% orange juices with pulp was assessed as well. Results obtained proved that antioxidant activity of juices varied in dependence on storage conditions (temperature, storage time, light exposure) and depends also on origin, variety and quality of fruit used. However, the application of nitrogen atmosphere and active packaging materials is not sufficient enough to eliminate the oxidation reactions in juices, but changes in antioxidant activity are better predictable. It can be concluded that EPR spectroscopy could be effectively applied for wines and spelt flours differentiation according to the way of production and to assess the stability of food products, either alone or in combination of UV/VIS spectroscopy and the other methods, utilizing multivariate statistics for processing of experimental data.
Study of Formation and Elimination of Acrylamide in Food Matrix during Heat Treatment.
Marková, Lucie ; Jarošová, Alžběta (referee) ; Buňka, František (referee) ; Šimko, Peter (advisor)
Acrylamide (AA) is a probable human carcinogen and undesirable contaminant which is produced by the reaction of reducing sugars with asparagine in plant foods during their thermal treatment above 120 °C. AA is most often determined by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS in isolates from the matrix in a wide range of foods. According to our observations, AA intake from food is higher among young people (from 1.8 to 3.8 µg/kg bw/day), which is consistent with the estimations of JECFA FAO/WHO from the year 2006. Considering the health risk, it is recommended to reduce AA formation in food during its processing, in particular exploiting the available experience. The aim of this thesis was to extend the knowledge of the possibility of AA elimination in selected types of thermally processed foods. The study was focused on cereal foods that contribute significantly to AA exposure, especially bread and sweet biscuits. The whole AA content in the bread is in the crust, which represents 5-15% of the bread. Crust of home-made bread contains approximately 30-75 µg/kg, however the marketed bread contains 2 to 10 times more of AA. This is due to the composition of bread mix, preparation conditions and baking. For maintaining the quality of home-made bread during the dry mixture shelf-life, optimization of bread mixtures was designed by increasing of yeast content, which proved positive effect on the reduction of AA content at sufficiently high activity of the yeast. Monitoring of AA content in assortment of sweet bakery products showed higher levels of AA in diabetic biscuits containing fructose instead of sucrose. Three of them even exceeded the reference value (500 µg/kg) more than 1.5 times for commodity "cookies". Elimination of AA by applications of the enzyme asparaginase has been designed for minimal interference in technology of their production. The concentration of the enzyme and the appropriate method of its use in industrial environment have been tested previously in model systems. In optimized conditions of the enzyme application, AA content in diabetic biscuits was reduced by more than 40% without affecting the organoleptic properties of the final product. Effect of the antioxidants on AA formation was also part of the study. AA content in gingerbread was reduced efficiently by the use of fennel, anise, cloves, vanilla and white pepper (by about 9-21%). Conversely, coriander and cinnamon significantly increased its content (by 18-54%). Since correlations between the DPPH• radical quenching activity of the spice extracts and AA content was not observed, the final content of AA was probably influenced by the chemical composition of spices and reactivity of the individual components in the matrix. Investigated methods appear to be suitable ways of elimination AA in some foods; however their specific use must be optimized with regard to the composition of the food, processing and the technology used. Estimated impact of application of the above-mentioned methods to the overall elimination of AA exposure showed that its intake in high school students from the Czech and Slovak Republic can be reduced on average by 10%. This decrease is a success to reduce the possible risk of cancer disease by eating foods with a high AA content. It is also important piece of information for food producers for further development of relevant methods for AA elimination which would help to reduce the AA intake from foods even more.
Characterisation of chosen types of dairy products
Musilová, Lenka ; Buňka, František (referee) ; Vítová, Eva (advisor)
The aim of this thesis was to design technology of production soft cheese with white mold on the surface in a pilot plant conditions using unpasteurized milk that comes from grazing cows. This way I wanted to be closer to the traditional cheese manufacturing technology, over which today dominates the industrial. Final cheeses were subjected to sensory analysis in order to determine their acceptability for ordinary consumers. Sensory evaluation was carried out by two committees: students and seniors. Between the two committiees were noticeable differences, however, both commissions at the conclusion assessed the cheese as „good”. This evaluation was mainly based on lower ratings of taste (flavor) of the samples, which were quite strong and unusual for Czech consumers.
Characterisation of processed cheese analogues
Chlebcová, Lenka ; Buňka, František (referee) ; Vítová, Eva (advisor)
This diploma thesis deals with the topic of cheese analogues, their characterization and qualitative and quantitative analysis of processed cheese analogues for determination the taste and aroma active compounds. The overall character of processed cheese analogues is theoretically compiled in the introductory part. Their utilization, causes of the production, market introduction, technological production process and microstructure, including their comparison with classical processed cheese are given here. Various kinds of fats were used for production of analyzed cheese analogues, therefore commonly used ingredients for their production, their physical-chemical and sensory properties have been described. Specifically butterfat, milk fat, coconut fat, palm fat and mixed oil. Samples used for the practical part of the diploma thesis were made at Tomas Bata University in Zlín. In the experimental part the profile of aroma compounds in individual cheese analogues samples was assessed by SPME-GC analysis. In total 34 compounds were identified. The results were evaluated and compared, with emphasis put on the influence of storage, different fats, different maturity of Edam cheese on the content of aroma active compounds and on overall sensory quality of the analogues.
Characterisation of processed cheese analogues
Studýnková, Hana ; Buňka, František (referee) ; Vítová, Eva (advisor)
The aim of this diploma thesis was to identify and quantify the content of taste and aroma active compounds and to evaluate flavour of cheese analogue samples with various vegetable fats (coconut, palm, butter and mixed oils and butter) and differently matured Edam cheese using selected sensory methods. The samples were produced at Tomas Bata University in Zlín. Aroma compounds were extracted using SPME and assessed using gas chromatography. In total 43 compounds were identified, 14 alcohols, 9 aldehydes, 7 ketones, 8 acids, 5 esters and 1 terpene. Simultaneously the analogues were sensorially evaluated using scale, profile and ranking tests. The influence of storage time, type of fat and Edam cheese used on content of aroma compounds and sensory quality of analogues were evaluated. The cheese analogues with butter were sensorially evaluated as the best, with mixed oil as the worst. From the point of view of aroma compounds content, the significant differences between samples were evident. Using more matured Edam cheese, the content of aroma compounds declined, however, these samples were sensorially evaluated as better. The content of aroma compounds decreased also with storage time, which is more obvious in less matured Edam cheese. So all above mentioned factors influence the content of aroma compounds and thus the flavour of cheese analogues.

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