National Repository of Grey Literature 26 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The use of stem cells in the experimental model of stroke
Turnovcová, Karolína ; Jendelová, Pavla (advisor) ; Bojar, Martin (referee) ; Mazurová, Yvona (referee)
Human stem cells from diverse origin are a most promising source for innovative therapy in acute brain lesions. Here, we evaluated the potential of human pluripotent cell-derived neural precursor therapy in stroke, we studied growth properties and surface marker expression of human mesenchymal stromal cells cultivated in different media and introduced superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for intracellular labeling and noninvasive tracking of transplanted cells. Our results showed that human embryonic cells and human induced pluripotent cells are able to differentiate towards transplantable neural and neuronal precursors. Our cells can follow the neuroectodermal development described in brain and spinal cord tissue during ontogenesis, which is characterized by the expression of different surface and cytoplasmic markers appearing on distinct levels of neurogenesis. Based on this expression, we defined our pluripotent cell-derived neural precursors as neural stem cells and neural progenitors and defined the most suitable developmental level for neural transplantation. We found a double effect of these transplants in restoring neurological functions; firstly, the neural transplants have a paracrine effect on damaged tissue, which is rapid and transient and, secondly, they have an effect on the...
Early diagnostic of cognitive disorders in neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease
Magerová, Hana ; Bojar, Martin (advisor) ; Jirák, Roman (referee) ; Mareš, Jan (referee)
The ageing of population leads to increase prevalence of dementias that are becoming a serious socio economic problem. Early initiation of treatment resulting from early diagnosis may delay the loss of self- sufficiency. These cause a growing effort for finding an early marker of these diseases that allows making diagnosis before developing dementia. The attention is focused mainly to Alzheimer's disease (AD) that represents the most common type of dementia and is the most affected by currently available drugs. The aim is to enable to diagnose AD already at the stage of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) that represents a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia. The olfactory impairment was considered to be a possible marker of AD as there is evidence that it occurs in very early stages of AD and its severity correlates with the disease progression. On the other hand, very poor data are available on olfactory functioning in other types of dementias. The neurodegenerative process starting in mesial temporal structures also suggests that AD patients may have an early spatial navigation impairment (especially in allocentric navigation) as well as facial emotion recognition impairment as the mesial temporal structures are crucial for these functions. These topics are presented in the submitted thesis....
Deviation of the axis of the spine in hereditary motoric and sensitive neuropathy
Horáček, Ondřej ; Kučera, Miroslav (advisor) ; Druga, Rastislav (referee) ; Bojar, Martin (referee) ; Kittnar, Otomar (referee)
Deviation of the axis of the spine in hereditary motoric and sensitive neuropathy Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Věkové a pohlavní rozdíly v GABAergní transmisi v substantia nigra pars reticulata u krys.
Chudomel, Ondřej ; Bojar, Martin (advisor) ; Vyklický, Ladislav (referee) ; Mareš, Pavel (referee)
Many experimental as well as clinical studies have shown that subcortical neuronal circuitries including the anterior part of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) are closely involved in the control of seizures propagation and termination. In vivo studies in rats demonstrated that inhibition of the GABAergic SNRA electrical output increases the seizure threshold in the flurothyl model of generalized clonic seizures. The anticonvulsant properties of the SNRA are largely age- and sex-depended. In the current experiments were used 3 age groups of Sprague Dawley rats (PN5-9, PN11-16 and PN25-32 days, PN = postnatal) to study GABAergic inhibition. Two types of GABAergic inhibition were studied: a) a synaptic inhibition, which is generated by α1 and α3-containing GABAARs and b) a tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic δ subunit-containing GABAARs. Immunohistochemistry showed that the α1 subunit expression was generally more abundant in adult rats and females while the α3 subunit dominated in the early development and gradually decreased by the age of PN30. The more α1 subunit was expressed the faster were the kinetics, higher the mean amplitudes and frequencies of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs). The α subunit subtype underlies sensitivity to zolpidem, which preferentially...
Early diagnostic of mnestic disorders in neurodegenerative diseases
Laczó, Jan ; Bojar, Martin (advisor) ; Jirák, Roman (referee) ; Mareš, Jan (referee) ; Rektorová, Irena (referee)
The ageing of the world's population means that the number of people with dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD), will dramatically increase. That's why there is now a great effort to detect the presence of AD in its earliest predementia stages, in the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and particularly to identify individuals with amnestic syndrome of the hippocampal type (Ha-MCI - preclinical AD). The aim of our studies was to reveal whether spatial navigation testing could serve as an early biomarker of AD - whether spatial navigation is impaired early in patients with MCI, especially in Ha-MCI patients. We used the human analogue of the Morris water maze, the Hidden Goal Task (HGT), which is designed t! o separate two different modes of navigation, egocentric (body- centred, hippocampus independent) and allocentric (world-centred, hippocampus dependent), using a real space navigation setting called the Blue Velvet Arena (BVA), fully enclosed cylindrical arena, as well as a computer version of the BVA. Our results suggest that spatial navigation is impaired already in patients with amnestic MCI, who are more likely to progress to AD, especially in those with amnestic syndrome of the hippocampal type. The Ha-MCI patients presented severe spatial navigation impairment similar to that seen in...
Adaptation mechanisms of the nervous system Following chronic injury and its clinical impact
Vaško, Peter ; Štětkářová, Ivana (advisor) ; Bojar, Martin (referee) ; Ehler, Edvard (referee)
Remarkable progress in therapy and diagnostics of neurological diseases, including brain and spinal cord injuries, has been achieved during last years. However, the nervous system with its complicated feedback circuits systems reaching from the periphery to the brain remains still unclear to our knowledge. Regeneration following serious injuries of the peripheral or central nervous system is often incomplete, leading to its poor functional outcome. Thus for the patients it means to become reconciled with a permanent disability. It is caused by limited recovery of the nervous system. Physiological circuits and neuronal nets are altered by an injury. In our study we try to elucidate some kind of an adaptation process of the peripheral and spinal nervous system using some of the neurophysiological methods. We studied the spinal inhibitory circuits and its afferent and efferent pathways and its role in acute and chronic lesions of the nervous system. We tried to reveal its potential capability in nervous system recovery. Our research includes several topics which have not been published yet. We focused on a spinal inhibitory reflex namely a cutaneous silent period in several conditions. In physiological conditions, we studied the influence of temperature on the cutaneous silent period; in pathological...
Antiaxonal antibodies in multiple sclerosis
Bartoš, Aleš ; Kalvach, Pavel (advisor) ; Bartůňková, Jiřina (referee) ; Bojar, Martin (referee) ; Kubala Havrdová, Eva (referee)
Aim: To address a question whether antibodies against cytoskeletal protiens, namely the neurofilament light chain (NFL) and medium chain (NFM), are of relevance in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). To compare the intrathecal synthesis of these antibodies between the patient groups. To analyze the correlation between antibodies and clinical features of the MS group.
Genetics and phenotypic characteristics of early-onset Parkinson's disease
Fiala, Ondřej ; Růžička, Evžen (advisor) ; Seeman, Pavel (referee) ; Bojar, Martin (referee)
Objective: Mutations in the parkin (PARK2) gene have been associated with autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) with various frequencies in different populations. The aim of the study is to describe phenotypic characteristics of Czech EOPD patients, to evaluate the influence of environmental risk factors, and to determine the frequency of parkin allelic variants in patients and healthy controls. Methods: A total of 70 EOPD patients (age at onset ≤ 40 years) and 75 controls were phenotyped and screened for the sequence variants and exon rearrangements in the parkin gene. Results: The main features in the phenotype of the patients' sample were: the absence of cognitive deficit, high occurrence of dystonia, depression, hyperhidrosis, an excellent response to dopaminergic therapy, early onset of dyskinesia and motor fluctuation. Patients with mutations in the parkin gene had significantly lower age at onset. The agricultural occupation and work with chemicals increased the risk of EOPD, however the coffee drinking appeared to be a protective factor. Parkin mutations were identified in five patients (7.1%): the p.R334C point mutation was present in one patient, four patients had exon deletions. The detected mutations were observed in the heterozygous state except one homozygous...
Thymectomy and immune mechanisms in patients with myasthenia gravis
Jakubíková, Michala ; Nevšímalová, Soňa (advisor) ; Bojar, Martin (referee) ; Špalek, Peter (referee)
Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease affecting neuromuscular transmission, in which the thymus is considered pathogenic organ. Earlier ideas suggesting that MG is only the receptors disease have been proven wrong. There are immunopathological changes in both target structures [specific receptors for acetylcholine (AChR] muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) and low-density lipoprotein 4 (Lrp4)], the thymus, as well as in peripheral lymphoid organs. Initial findings of the humoral immunity defect with the decisive role of the pathologic autoantibodies, were corrected with findings of the immune dysregulation at the level of T lymphocytes. According to today's knowledge, the development and maintenance of MG involves almost all cell types of immune function in the autoimmune inflammation: helper CD4+ T lymphocytes, cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes, regulatory CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes, Th17 lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and plasma cells. Thymus plays a dominant immunopathogenetic role in younger patients with MG, while extrathymic mechanisms are applied in older patients. As a result of that, the thymectomy (TE) is generally accepted as part of treatment for MG. However, there is still no data verified by a prospective controlled study, which would demonstrate a useful result of this treatment...
The use of stem cells in the experimental model of stroke
Turnovcová, Karolína ; Jendelová, Pavla (advisor) ; Bojar, Martin (referee) ; Mazurová, Yvona (referee)
Human stem cells from diverse origin are a most promising source for innovative therapy in acute brain lesions. Here, we evaluated the potential of human pluripotent cell-derived neural precursor therapy in stroke, we studied growth properties and surface marker expression of human mesenchymal stromal cells cultivated in different media and introduced superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for intracellular labeling and noninvasive tracking of transplanted cells. Our results showed that human embryonic cells and human induced pluripotent cells are able to differentiate towards transplantable neural and neuronal precursors. Our cells can follow the neuroectodermal development described in brain and spinal cord tissue during ontogenesis, which is characterized by the expression of different surface and cytoplasmic markers appearing on distinct levels of neurogenesis. Based on this expression, we defined our pluripotent cell-derived neural precursors as neural stem cells and neural progenitors and defined the most suitable developmental level for neural transplantation. We found a double effect of these transplants in restoring neurological functions; firstly, the neural transplants have a paracrine effect on damaged tissue, which is rapid and transient and, secondly, they have an effect on the...

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