National Repository of Grey Literature 15 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Examination of the Spatial Structure of Pigs' Melanoma in Tissue Sections Based on Histology and Mass Spectrometry
Anýz, J. ; Vysloužilová, L. ; Horák, Vratislav ; Štěpánková, O. ; Vaculovič, T. ; Adam, V.
We examine the spatial structure of the melanoma in tissue sections. The pigs melanoma was examined in 10 tissue samples obtained from animals of age between 4 and 22 weeks. The tissue sections were measured by light microscopy and Laser Ablation Ion Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry to obtain spatial metal (Cu, Zn) distribution. The exploratory analysis of the tissue sections indicates there is clearly a pattern in the spatial structure. Different projections of the spatial structure of the melanoma are obtained by the different measurement methods. The spectral clustering on the data was utilized to describe the structure in the data. According to the clustering results, there are distinct clusters of observations in the histological data. The spatial elemental distribution of the metals Cu and Zn cannot be clustered -the data form one compact cluster. The clustering of the histological images produces clusters which are related to the annotation of the biological samples in broader terms -the differences between fibrous and cancerous tissue.
Characterization of upconversion nanoparticles by fluorescence spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis
Vaněčková, T. ; Zítka, J. ; Hlaváček, Antonín ; Adam, V. ; Vaculovičová, M.
Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are a novel class of luminescent tags for applications in life and material sciences. Unlike traditional fluorophores, UCNPs exhibit emission of shorter wavelength under near-infrared excitation (typically 980 nm). In this work, we have examined these unique photophysical properties by fluorescence spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis. UCNPs co-doped with Yb(III) and Er(III) were characterized using laboratory-made fluorescence spectrometer. We have exploited and evaluated two excitation sources and the dependence of the fluorescence of UCNPs on the relative excitation power. Moreover, capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) detection was for the first time used for characterization of the nanoparticles. It was proved that CE-LIF is a valuable method to be used for investigation of upconversion luminiscence and monitoring of the interactions of UCNPs with other molecules of interest.
Experimental study of chemical evolution of biomolecules under early Earth conditions
Knížek, Antonín ; Ferus, Martin (advisor) ; Adam, Vojtěch (referee)
Origin of life is a still-enduring gap in human knowledge. This work is focused on revealing of several pieces of this puzzle. State of the art scenarios of biomolecules synthesis under prebiotic conditions are presented and discussed. This thesis presents our recent experiments suggesting a novel idea that neutral planetary atmosphere containing a mixture of neutral volcanic-type gasses (CO2, N2, H2O) can be converted over acidic mineral catalysts upon irradiation by a soft UV-radiation into a relatively reactive mixture of reducing gases (CH4, CO), which can be further reprocessed by high-energy chemistry. The resulting mixture (CH4, CO + N2) represents a common reducing atmosphere related e.g. to the chemistry of Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, as well as a possible representation of the secondary atmosphere of our planet. Also, photocatalytic reduction of CO2-rich atmosphere can explain the abiotic origin of methane on current Mars or other terrestrial planets. In our subsequent experiments, corresponding equimolar model mixture of CH4 : CO : N2 in presence of water vapour was subjected to reprocessing by high-power laser plasma simulating an asteroid impact - one of a series of impact events which the young Earth experienced during the first 600 million years of her history. Upon delivery...
Alternative Methods for the Analysis of Structural Changes in Muscle Tissue
Kaspar, Pavel ; Hrabovský, Miroslav (referee) ; Adam, Vojtěch (referee) ; Grmela, Lubomír (advisor)
Tato disertační práce se zabývá tématikou analýzy strukturálních změn ve svalové tkáni a metodikou optického měření. I přesto, že existuje nezanedbatelné množství metod pro detekci konkrétních změn ve svalovině, především pak v konzumním mase, drtivá většina z nich se zaměřuje na jeden konkrétní proces a vyžaduje komplikované postupy a drahé přístroje. Předmětem prezentovaného výzkumu není tedy nalézt metody přesnější a specifičtější, než jsou ty již exitující, ale raději zvolit alternativní přístup k problematice. Součástí je pak i snaha najít možnosti jak obejít technologické nároky moderních postupů a přitom se přiblížit co nejvíce jejich informačnímu přínosu. Za tímto účelem je potřeba mít dostatečné teoretické znalosti a experimentální zkušenosti především v oboru fyziky, optiky a postupů měření, ale také široké povědomí o problematice biologických tkání a procesů v nich probíhajících. Na základě získaných informací a pochopení pochodů ve svalové tkáni jsou navrhnuty a testovány tři rozdílné přístupy. Vytvořené metody pracují s fotony v transmisním i reflexním uspořádání. Pomocí pozorování změn absorpce, rozptylu a polarizace světla po interakci se vzorkem svalové tkáně jsou posouzeny jeho další optické vlastnosti především index lomu a optická anizotropie. Identifikace změn optických vlastností vzorků za různých podmínek umožňuje společně se simulací Monte Carlo posoudit rozdíly mezi vzorky čerstvými, starými, sušenými a jednou či dvakrát zmraženými a rozmraženými.
Biosensors based on modified TiO2 nanoparticles
Valkovičová, Jiřina ; Adam, Vojtěch (referee) ; Hubálek, Jaromír (advisor)
The work is focused on quantum dots (QDs) array fabrication from titanium dioxide using template based non-lithographic method and their luminescence (fluorescence) properties study. The paper describes TiO2 QDs surface modification with gold using suitable template technique and subsequent functionalization of gold modified QDs surface via oligonucleotides. This functinalization step provides a suitable base for subsequent hybridization reaction with detected nucleic acid. The system of biosensor (TiO2 QDs modified with gold and biomolecules) is designed for rapid optical diagnosis of viral diseases.
Isolation and purification of nucleic acids using magnetised micro- and nanoparticles
Dostálová, Simona ; Adam, Vojtěch (referee) ; Kizek, René (advisor)
Nucleic acids are a completely unique component of every organism. They determine the appearance, behaviour or disposition to a certain disease. Despite their importance, there is still a lot of information unknown. In order to study the nucleic acids, they need to be purified from other components of the organism. The routine methods of isolation and purification are often laborious and time consuming; therefore experiments with magnetic separation are carried out. This thesis deals with magnetic micro- and nanoparticles and their application in this field. General conditions of this isolation are summarized in the thesis. Detection methods of nucleic acids are listed, focusing on electrochemical methods. A procedure for isolation and purification of nucleic acids using magnetic particles and square-wave voltammetry is described. This procedure was modified in experimental part of the thesis to achieve the maximum yield. Partial steps including washing, immobilization and elution were optimized. Results showed that the phosphate buffer was optimal for washing of beads before immobilization of nucleic acids on their surface. The optimal immobilization was carried out for 5 minutes at 20 °C and microtube needed to be firmly shaken during the process. Immobilization solution composed of 0.1M Na2HPO4 + 0.1M NaH2PO4, 0.6M guanidinium thiocyanate, 0.15M Trizma base adjusted by HCl on pH 7.5 and 2.5M CsCl. 5M NaCl was optimal for washing of the complex “beads-nucleic acid” after the immobilization. Elution was carried out for 15 minutes at 99 °C and the highest yield was obtained using elution solution composed of Tris-EDTA pH at 9.1
Mathematical analysis in mass spectrometry
Vlachová Hutová, Eliška ; Adam, Vojtěch (referee) ; Valla, Martin (advisor)
In this bachelor work, there is theoretically described the principle of mass spectometry and tandem mass spectometry, usage the method in practices and description of functionality of separate analysers. Next, there is also mentioned the description of mass spectrum and the algorithm to its analysis. Practical part of the work describes the creation of analytic tool to evaluate spectrum and following usage of this programming tool for the practical analysis of flavonoid compounds, concretely isoflavonoid.
Synthesis of spherical gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications
Gablech, Evelína ; Adam, Vojtěch (referee) ; Drbohlavová, Jana (advisor)
Tato práce se zabývá syntézou sférických zlatých nanočástic pro biomedicínské aplikace. Zlaté nanočástice byly syntetizovány ekologicky nezávadnými metodami, kterým je věnována i značná část rešerše. Cílem bylo nasyntetizovat stabilní koloidní zlaté nanočástice vhodné pro různé biomedicínké aplikace zejména, pro in vivo a in vitro zobrazovací metody, kterých přehled je take obsažen v teoretické části práce. Také byl proveden test cytotoxicity, jelikož částice mají být použitelné pro in vivo aplikace. Částice byly dale charakterizovány metodami SEM, DLS a UV-VIS.
Electrochemical and mathematical study of interactions of selenite with biologically active thiols
Slavík, Jan ; Hynek, David (referee) ; Adam, Vojtěch (advisor)
Proteins with thiol groups interact with metal ions in the human body. They maintain their homeostasis, participate in cell signaling, protect the cell against the effects of toxic metals and detoxify them. This work is focused on proteins with thiol groups glutathione and metallothionein and their effects on selenium. The method of study is electrochemical.

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