National Repository of Grey Literature 74 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
MLOSINT: Classifying Vehicle Losses in Ukraine
Kanát, Antonín ; Špelda, Petr (advisor) ; Střítecký, Vít (referee)
This thesis explores the potential of applying machine learning (ML) to assist with open source intelligence (OSINT) analysis. As the shared input of both disciplines, data is the primary lens through which the topic is examined. To understand the entire process of deploying an ML model from data collection to analysis, an image classifier of Russian vehicle losses in the invasion of Ukraine was trained and tested. Trained on a dataset of over 50,000 labelled images from the WarSpotting database, the classifier achieved a decent accuracy of 79% on evaluation data on the five most populous categories of images. On testing data from a later period, the performance dropped to 62%. One explanation offered is that the static frontlines and the prominence of drones led to most of the recent imagery being aerial, while the training data was captured mainly from the ground. That result demonstrated how inevitable changes, even in seemingly well-curated data, can lead to the low performance of ML models in deployment. Beyond changes on the battlefield, deeper data issues came to light, including the cascading effects of early data management decisions and dataset imbalance. Overall, current image classification methods do not work well on the noisy data available.
Digital Technologies in Promoting Peace: Integration, Impact and Challenges.
Kurmanbekova, Adinai ; Špelda, Petr (advisor) ; Glouftsios, Georgios (referee)
Nowadays, digital technologies play a significant role in the daily lives of people and progressively continue to be integrated into different domains. Peacebuilding and peacekeeping organizations do not appear to be immune to this process, as evidenced by the increasing number of digital technology applications in this field. This thesis explores how these technologies are used in peace operations, what impact and challenges there are in their implementation. Examining both on the strategic level and the contextual case study of Democratic Republic of Congo, the paper seeks to empirically explore if digital technologies are making traditional peace operation models obsolete. The comprehensive qualitative study of documents and literature base demonstrates that there is a non-alignment between the strategic discourse and reality. Digital technology is a supplementary dimension in peace operations that can expand the missions' capabilities, however it is still early to assert that the traditional peace operation models are being outdated by the development of digital technologies. Key words: Peacekeeping, Digital Technologies, United Nations, Peacebuilding, Data, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
Disrupting Digital Dissonance: Exploring the Efficacy of AI in Tackling Extreme Right Content on TikTok
Eastwood, Georgina Emily Louise ; Fitzgerald, James (advisor) ; Špelda, Petr (referee)
The possible future of artificial intelligence (AI) in content moderation is examined in this dissertation, with a focus placed on countering extreme right material on the social network platform TikTok. As social media develops as a powerful communication and information distribution tool, user safety and free speech face severe threats from the dissemination of dangerous content, particularly extremist beliefs. The tremendous volume of user-generated content on TikTok challenges traditional content moderation techniques, requiring more efficacious and scalable solutions. Additionally, this research emphasises possible effects on global security that transcend social media. Digitally distributed extreme right content has the potential to contribute to radicalisation and poses security risks on a worldwide scale. Recognising how effectively AI- driven solutions aid in restricting potentially harmful content can assist with more significant initiatives to fight radicalisation and advance digital security on a global level. The significance of this dissertation is further reinforced by its emphasis on the 2022 Digital Services Act of the European Commission, which highlights the duty of Internet platforms to combat dangerous content. This study uses a case study to offer important new insights into...
Digital Threats to Democracy: Investigating the Complexities of Election Interference by Non-State Information Operations Actors and its Connection to Data Colonialism in the Global South
Brannen, Morgan ; Špelda, Petr (advisor) ; Alì, Antonino (referee)
The integration of data-driven microtargeting techniques in political campaigning has transformed modern domestic and global politics. Contemporary elections cycles are witnessing a surge in attack advertisements, fake news, and data manipulation, fuelled by the emergence of political consulting firms like Cambridge Analytica. These firms, as non-state information operations actors (IOAs), have emerged as influential players with considerable sway over democratic stability worldwide. This dissertation aims to explore the role of such actors in Kenya's Presidential Elections of 2013 and 2017, combining existing research with the concept of 'Data Colonialism'. The study seeks to understand how non-state IOAs engage in digital election interference and potentially contribute to data colonial practices, paving the way for more effective regulation and protection of democratic processes in the Global South. This dissertation used qualitative data from investigations and news reports to thematically analyse the actions of non-state IOAs in the 2013 and 2017 Kenyan Presidential Elections. The findings were then interpreted in accordance with a data colonialism framework to understand the potential implications of digital election interference in the Global South. Through this approach, the study reveals...
How can intelligence be used for benign purposes, in order to solve current global governance issues?
Delaney, Megan ; Kaczmarski, Marcin (advisor) ; Špelda, Petr (referee)
Intelligence, by its very nature, is an elusive concept (Lundborg,2021,p443; Cornish,2021,p224; Deeks,2016,p599; Tucker, 2014,p10). As a result of its seemingly intangible characteristics, its positive application has gone under-recognised, and its creative application, largely neglected (Stone, 2012; Breakspear, 2012, p. 678). A significant focus on its function through espionage has left the public, and actors alike, hesitant to invest or study further, into its innovation (Glassman, 2012, p. 673; Potter, 1996; Richards, 2010, p. 4). The state-centric focus of literature and observations relating to the intelligence sector, means that its private-sector function is largely neglected, even though it is a fast emerging, and powerful sector (Gill,2013, p93; Lin, 2011, p10;Puyvelde,2019,p21;Adriana,2021, p8). Taken in the context of global governance issues, outlined by the UN Sustainable Development goals, we will see how far that private sector intelligence has come already outside of the remit of the state, and its transformative capacity (UNCD, 2014, p. 4). With any fast-expanding sector, comes its own issues. Lack of regulation of the industry, has contributed to the absence of a universal accountability mechanism, which this dissertation will look to create through an originally developed...
Human Intelligence Throughout History: An Analysis of the Changes in Human Intelligence Collection Techniques from the Cold War to the Present
Lohmann, Garrett Thomas ; Biagini, Erika (advisor) ; Špelda, Petr (referee)
This dissertation seeks to investigate how the human intelligence (HUMINT) collection field has evolved from the Cold War to the modern day. To conduct this investigation this dissertation will examine the HUMINT activities of three case study countries, the United States, Russia, and China. Along with the analysis of these case studies' HUMINT activities, this dissertation will also analyze how technology has changed over time to aid HUMINT in the digital world of today. This analysis serves to prove a pattern in the evolution of HUMINT activities along with the rise of new technologies. By analyzing patterns of the evolution of the HUMINT technology relationship, this dissertation will provide insight into the possible future of the HUMINT collection field.
Insecurity Unveiled? China and Israel's Use of AI and Mass Surveillance for National Security and Identity
Strat, Francesca Elena ; Kaczmarski, Marcin (advisor) ; Špelda, Petr (referee)
The fusion of artificial intelligence (AI) and mass surveillance stands as a pivotal crossroads in technological evolution, offering both unprecedented prospects and intricate dilemmas. AI's rapid advancement, simulating human cognition, holds vast potential across diverse domains, yet its implications evoke a blend of optimism and caution. In parallel, the ascent of mass surveillance, driven by technological strides and security imperatives, triggers debates on privacy boundaries and the permissible extent of surveillance. The deployment of pervasive surveillance tools triggers concerns about individual rights and potential misuse of power, necessitating a delicate equilibrium between security and personal autonomy. China and Israel emerge as central actors in the AI-driven mass surveillance narrative. China's swift integration of AI and surveillance technology, exemplified by extensive facial recognition, embodies its commitment to bolster security and governance. However, this approach stirs international apprehensions about privacy erosion and human rights, particularly concerning Xinjiang's Uyghur population. Likewise, Israel's innovation drives cutting-edge surveillance systems, primarily directed at security and intelligence. Yet, their implementation raises queries about oversight,...
The Interplay Between Smart Cities and Disaster Risk Reduction: A Study of the City of Amsterdam
Rossi, Alice ; Špelda, Petr (advisor) ; Střítecký, Vít (referee)
The thesis examines how the development of smart cities interplays with the enhancement of Disaster Risk Reduction. Natural disasters are increasing, especially in urban areas, representing a concentration of social, economic and institutional vulnerabilities due to high population density. The development of smart cities could represent an opportunity to make urban areas safer and prepared to handle possible extreme weather events, as they are based on the development of cross-sectoral policies to deal with urban challenges and increase the city's overall efficiency. Through a single case study research of the city of Amsterdam, the thesis aims to prove the connections between smart cities and disaster risk reduction frameworks through qualitative data analysis. The findings show the overall efficiency of the approach employed by the city of Amsterdam for both the development of the smart city and disaster risk reduction. Even if the city does not explicitly state the connection between the two domains, the study found that Amsterdam's smart city policies have several elements that interplay with the framework of disaster risk reduction, enhancing its effectiveness. Keywords Smart Cities, Disaster Risk Reduction, Disaster Risk, Vulnerability, Resilience, Policy-Making Title The Interplay Between...
The (New) Security Dilemma: Impact of technological innovation on the security dilemma
Kadre, Sudhanshu ; Špelda, Petr (advisor) ; Šenk, Michal (referee)
The enduring concept of the security dilemma seen from the lens of the technological revolution in Information Security provides a different perception than the traditional version of the dilemma. Moving from apparent to perceived threats, the underlying fear and uncertainty between state actors in an anarchic system have witnessed an increase. This thesis has the objective to study the effect of the advancements in Information and Community Technology, particularly in Cybersecurity, on the perception of the security dilemma. By analysing the basis of Information Security theory while simultaneously probing the cyber threat landscape through the use of case studies of cyber attacks and cyber diplomacy, the thesis highlights the relevance of the security dilemma in cyberspace
The First World Social Media War: Impacts of Social Media Networks on the Russo-Ukrainian War
Ženíšek, Jan ; Střítecký, Vít (advisor) ; Špelda, Petr (referee)
This thesis aims to investigate the possible implication of social media networks to warfare. Chiefly in terms of the application of social media networks as a supplementary instrument in the scope of conventional warfare. The research is based on the development of the first year of the Russian invasion of Ukraine. The main data source for the analysis is information about Authors and their Tweets from the social media network Twitter. For the purpose of the research, a custom data collection algorithm was developed to obtain a sample of more than two million Tweets that were published in connection with the Russo-Ukrainian war or Tweets that further interacted with such content. The gathered data from Twitter are analyzed in the context of two additional open-source datasets containing information about the individual attacks by both belligerents and the volume of international donations to Ukraine using volumetric analysis. Additionally, Twitter-related data are processed using social media analysis to determine the key individuals and groups in the social network via measuring betweenness centrality and modularity optimization. The thesis concludes that social media networks have the potential to impact a broad audience and mobilize international support. Further, the research discovered evidence that...

National Repository of Grey Literature : 74 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
Interested in being notified about new results for this query?
Subscribe to the RSS feed.