National Repository of Grey Literature 23 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Europe 2020 Strategy: Are National Goals Reasonable?
Břízová, Pavla ; Šmídková, Kateřina (advisor) ; Martišková, Monika (referee)
The current economic strategy of the European Union - the Europe 2020 Strategy - has defined five measurable Headline Targets to enhance economic growth and allowed the Member States to set their own national numerical values for these targets. This thesis analyses quality of this target setting process. First, it tries to figure out whether the targets have been set better than in the preceding Lisbon Strategy. Second, it examines whether the National Targets have been defined clearly and unequivocally. Third and the most important, based on original empirical analysis, the thesis evaluates whether the National Targets have been determined reasonably with respect to general capacities of individual European economies. The main results reveal that some learning from the Lisbon Strategy has been made, but the quality of the National Targets is insufficient and should be increased. JEL Classification E61, F55, O52 Keywords Europe 2020, strategy, European Union, national targets, empirical analysis, MULTIMOORA, Ratio System of MOORA, Reference point of MOORA, Full Multiplicative Form, Lisbon Strategy Author's e-mail PavlaBrizova@seznam.cz Supervisor's e-mail katerina.smidkova@cnb.cz
Fiscal Rules in the European Union
Výprachtická, Terezie ; Šmídková, Kateřina (advisor) ; Schneider, Ondřej (referee)
ABSTRACTS PART I - The EMU and its Fiscal Rules This paper treats the fiscal rules of the European Economic and Monetary Union. It begins by introducing this union's inception and by discussing its set of fiscal rules - the Stability and Growth Pact, including its reform. The rationale for policy coordination and the need for fiscal rules in a monetary union are then investigated. The Stability and Growth Pact is then assessed from this point of view. The most important part of the paper is devoted to the analysis of whether the Stability and Growth Pact could be substituted by the disciplining effect of the financial markets. Our findings suggest that there is certain interaction between the financial markets and the governments' decisions on the fiscal policies and that this reaction has become stronger after the beginning of the latest financial and economic crisis. However, the institutional setup and market conditions in the European Union are such that this interaction is biased and thus we conclude that the Union needs to have fiscal rules. JEL Classification: C23, E44, E61, E62, H62, H87 Keywords: European Economic and Monetary Union, Stability and Growth Pact, Financial markets, Fiscal rules, Policy coordination PART II - The Golden Rule of Public Finance and Productivity of Public Capital This...
Measuring Financial Market Perception of Economic and Monetary Union Enlargement
von Terzi, Martina ; Holub, Tomáš (advisor) ; Fidrmuc, Jarko (referee) ; Dědek, Oldřich (referee) ; Šmídková, Kateřina (referee)
This thesis deals with assessing how financial markets perceive prospects of future euro area enlargement. Market views on such an enlargement are measured using two different approaches. The first approach, the static probability calculators method (SPC), is based on an existing method that was previously used for the old EU Member States. In order to overcome inherent shortcomings of this method, a second, completely new methodology with an indicator that is based on short-term dynamics of forward spreads was developed, further referred to as dynamic probability calculators (DPC). Both the SPC and DPC are applied to data from four Central Eastern European countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia. In addition, data of other European countries were used to assess the robustness of the two approaches. The new methodology is conceptually based on the notion of ambiguity-averse agents. Specifically, it attempts to apply the framework of incomplete preferences, developing a general equilibrium framework, which allows for multiple equilibria supported by one set of fundamentals. This equilibrium indeterminacy offers a way to reconcile shortterm fluctuations of market prices with a relatively stable underlying economic environment and expectations. The thesis concludes with a...
Fiscal rules in the European Union
Výprachtická, Terezie ; Šmídková, Kateřina (advisor) ; Koprnická, Kamila (referee)
The first part of the thesis treats the fiscal rules of the European Economic and Monetary Union. It begins by introducing this union's inception and by discussing its set of fiscal rules - the Stability and Growth Pact, including its reform. The rationale for policy coordination and the need for fiscal rules in a monetary union are then investigated. The Stability and Growth Pact is then assessed from this point of view. The most important part of the paper is devoted to the analysis of whether the Stability and Growth Pact could be substituted by the disciplining effect of the financial markets. Our findings suggest that there is certain interaction between the financial markets and the governments' decisions on the fiscal policies and that this reaction has become stronger after the beginning of the latest financial and economic crisis. However, the institutional setup and market conditions in the European Union are such that this interaction is biased and thus we conclude that the Union needs to have fiscal rules. The second of the thesis concentrates on the golden rule of public finance. It reviews the main advantages and disadvantages of the potential implementation of this rule in the European Union. Often the question of the productivity of public capital is at the heart of the rule's discussions....
Three essays on the inflation targeting regime in Egypt
Ibrahim, Ibrahim Lofti Awad ; Šmídková, Kateřina (advisor) ; Holub, Tomáš (referee) ; Cahlík, Tomáš (referee)
This dissertation comprises three empirical essays on adopting the inflation targeting regime in Egypt. It sets out to answer the following questions: (i) Can the central bank of Egypt (CBE) achieve the goal of price stability under the currently applied monetary targeting regime? (ii) Is the legal independence granted to the CBE under the latest legislation promulgated in 2005 factual? (iii) Does the CBE maintain an implicit target for the FX rate? Does the CBE follow an independent monetary policy? Which variables have priority in the reaction function of the CBE? How far can foreign economic shocks explain the behavior of real GDP and price level in the Egyptian economy compared with domestic economic shocks? And which monetary transmission mechanism channels play a dominant role in the Egyptian economy? The main conclusions of the study came as follows: (i) Neither the demand for money function nor the velocity of circulation of money is found stable in Egypt. Thus, the study concludes that the CBE cannot achieve price stability under the currently applied monetary targeting regime. (ii) The legal independence granted to the CBE under the latest legislation is not factual. (iii) By estimating the monetary transmission mechanisms (MTMs) using a structural VAR model the conclusions of the study were as...
Inflation Differentials in the European Union: Panel Data Analysis of the Driving Factors for Inflation Differentials in the New Member States
Koprnická, Kamila ; Horváth, Roman (advisor) ; Šmídková, Kateřina (referee)
In this rigorous thesis, we analyse inflation differentials in the EU. The aim of the study is twofold. First, based mainly on literature review, we describe long-term trends and potential causes of inflation differentials in the euro area as well as in the new EU member states. Second, we examine the driving factors for inflation differentials in a panel of the new European Union member states via-à-vis the euro area in 1997-2006. In particular, we use the methodology of the influential study by Honohan and Lane (2003) exploring the role of nominal effective exchange rate, cyclical conditions, fiscal policies and price convergence in inflation differentials across the euro area countries. The application of the same methodology and explanatory variables enables us direct comparison with results of Honohan and Lane (2003). Our results suggest that the given factors are important determinants of inflation differentials in the new EU member states, too. Exchange rate appreciation and a higher price level in the new EU member states are associated with a narrower inflation differential vis-à-vis the euro area, while a fiscal deficit and a positive output gap seem to contribute to a higher inflation differential. Nevertheless, the effect of price convergence on inflation differentials is found to be...
Banking and Currency Crises: Differential Diagnostics for Developed Countries
Joy, Mark ; Rusnák, Marek ; Šmídková, Kateřina ; Vašíček, Bořek
We identify a set of “rules of thumb” that characterise economic, financial and structural conditions preceding the onset of banking and currency crises in 36 advanced economies over 1970–2010. We use the Classification and Regression Tree methodology (CART) and its Random Forest (RF) extension, which permits the detection of key variables driving binary crisis outcomes, allows for interactions among key variables and determines critical tipping points. We distinguish between basic country conditions, country structural characteristics and international developments. We find that crises are more varied than they are similar. For banking crises we find that low net interest rate spreads in the banking sector and a shallow or inverted yield curve are their most important forerunners in the short term, whereas in the longer term it is high house price inflation. For currency crises, high domestic short-term rates coupled with overvalued exchange rates are the most powerful short-term predictors. We find that both country structural characteristics and international developments are relevant banking crisis predictors. Currency crises, however, seem to be driven more by country idiosyncratic, short-term developments. We find that some variables, such as the domestic credit gap, provide important unconditional signals, but it is difficult to use them as conditional signals and, more importantly, to find relevant threshold values.
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The Exchange Rate as an Instrument at Zero Interest Rates: The Case of the Czech Republic
Franta, Michal ; Holub, Tomáš ; Král, Petr ; Kubicová, Ivana ; Šmídková, Kateřina ; Vašíček, Bořek
This study examines the use of the exchange rate by the Czech National Bank as a monetary policy instrument at the zero lower bound on interest rates. It provides a review of the economic literature on unconventional monetary policy instruments and particularly on the possibility of using the exchange rate. It explains the CNB’s reasons for further easing monetary policy and for choosing the exchange rate instrument and its specific level, and discusses its expected benefits in the case of the Czech Republic. It also explains why the CNB ultimately decided to transparently declare a one-sided exchange rate commitment with potentially unlimited foreign exchange interventions. The article concludes by assessing the impacts of the exchange rate weakening on the Czech economy to date, as compared to what the CNB had expected, and by describing the public debate of the CNB’s action and related changes in its communication strategy.
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Inflation Reports and Models: How Well Do Central Banks Really Write?
Bulíř, Aleš ; Hurník, Jaromír ; Šmídková, Kateřina
We offer a novel methodology for assessing the quality of inflation reports. In contrast to the existing literature, which mostly evaluates the formal quality of these reports, we evaluate their economic content by comparing inflation factors reported by the central banks with ex-post model-identified factors. Regarding the former, we use verbal analysis and coding of in flation reports to describe inflation factors communicated by central banks in real time. Regarding the latter, we use reduced - form, new Keynesian models and revised data to approximate the true inflation factors. Positive correlations indicate that the r eported inflation factors were similar to the true, model-identified ones and hence mark high-quality inflation reports. Although central bank reports on average identify inflation factors correctly, the degree of forward-looking reporting varies across fa ctors, time, and countries.
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Economic research bulletin (2007, No.1)
Heřmánek, Jaroslav ; Hlaváček, Michal ; Jakubík, Petr ; Geršl, Adam ; Derviz, Alexis ; Podpiera, Jiří ; Šmídková, Kateřina
This issue of the CNB Research Bulletin looks at advances in the area of financial stability. Financial stability issues have attracted the attention of central banks in the last 10 years, mainly due to the rapid development of financial systems, the emergence of new financial products and the increased integration of the financial system across borders. These issues are extremely important for the Czech financial sector as well. One of the most widely used analytical tools for evaluating the stability of the financial sector is stress testing. The first article – by Jaroslav Heřmánek, Petr Jakubík and Michal Hlaváček – describes progress in this area as compared to earlier versions of stress testing. Progress has been made primarily in the areas of modelling credit risk and linking the stress testing to the CNB’s official macroeconomic forecast. The second and third articles – by Adam Geršl and by Alexis Derviz and Jiří Podpiera – are devoted to the issue of cross border-contagion in the Czech Republic. This problem is of great importance for the Czech Republic due to the strong foreign ownership of the Czech banking sector and the increasing crossborder flows of capital. The article by Adam Geršl uses macroeconomic data from BIS and compares the threats of cross-border contagion from other CEECs using a common creditor index. The article by Alexis Derviz and Jiří Podpiera presents the results of a sophisticated microeconomic model of lending contagion within multinational banking groups together with an empirical model of lending contagion using individual bank data from Bankscope.
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2 Šmídková, Karla
16 Šmídková, Kateřina
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