National Repository of Grey Literature 8 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Molecular bases for the effect of exercise on postmenopausal bone health
Mocová, Klára ; Škubica, Patrik (advisor) ; Pikner, Richard (referee)
Hormonal changes caused by menopause, most notably the decline in estradiol levels, lead to rapid bone loss, putting a significant percentage of postmenopausal women at serious risk of developing osteoporosis. Postmenopausal osteoporosis influences many aspects of women's health and their overall well-being. Regular physical activity is considered one of the essential means to slow the bone loss process and prevent bone fragility. Many molecules play a role in the reaction of bone to mechanical stress during exercise, both those produced directly by bone cells and those expressed by other tissues, such as myokines and cytokines. The molecular connections between the menopausal changes in bone and the skeletal reaction to exercise are not well-known, especially considering variables like different types of exercise or individual levels of osteoporosis risk. Learning more about these links could help us better understand how exactly exercise influences postmenopausal bones. Moreover, it would be beneficial for creating more effective guidelines for osteoporosis prevention through exercise and developing better prevention and treatment approaches for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Keywords: menopause, bone metabolism, physical activity, exercise, postmenopausal osteoporosis
Molecular mechanisms of cfDNA effects
Hříbková, Natálie ; Daňková, Pavlína (advisor) ; Škubica, Patrik (referee)
The biological role of free circulating DNA is currently being investigated mainly in terms of the etiology of autoimmune conditions and cancer. It appears that the role of cfDNA of nuclear or mitochondrial origin in interacting with receptors of the innate immune system is quite complex and cfDNA is thus involved in a variety of molecular mechanisms such as the spread of cancer metastasis, induction of autophagy and triggering of inflammatory processes. Knowledge of the specific pathways in which cfDNA is involved in the development of these pathologies seems to be crucial, especially in terms of selecting and targeting appropriate therapies. This paper provides a framework for the knowledge on the interaction of cfDNA with receptors of the innate immune system, the induction of immunological signaling pathways and the possible consequences that these molecular pathways may have in the body. Key words: cfDNA, TLR9, cGAS/STING, AIM2, autoimmune disease, biomarker, cancer
The influence of circadian rhythms on the origin, course and treatment of human psychical disorders
Kititi, Tina ; Šolc, Roman (advisor) ; Škubica, Patrik (referee)
Circadian rhythms control several major functions in our body. Today's hectic lifestyle could damage circadian rhythms and also trigger a number of negative conditions that are predictors of psychical disorders. Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are classified as serious mental disorders with a recurrent course and frequent long-term to lifelong treatment. Disruption of circadian rhythms has been shown to worsen the symptoms of these psychical disorders and increase their relapse rates. The disrupted circadian rhythms have the greatest impact on sleep patterns and differential rhythms of hormone production. Many studies suggest chronobiological treatment as a possible adjunctive treatment to conventional treatment with antidepressants and antipsychotics. The main goal of chronobiological treatment is to return the circadian rhythm to its correct original state. Although there is some association between circadian rhythms and the pathophysiology of psychical disorders, its exact role is not clearly understood. Key words: circadian rhythms, psychical disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, sleep
Evolutionary aspects of Alzheimer's disease. Major role of the Apolipoprotein E
Škubica, Patrik ; Daňková, Pavlína (advisor) ; Jirák, Roman (referee)
Alzheimer's disease is one of the most discussed conditions, due to its huge social and economic consequences. Whereas molecular and genetic aspects causing early onset of the disease are relatively well known, it still remains to be clearly shown how genetic risks and environmental factors interact to ultimately cause the late onset form. Major molecular-genetic factors affecting risk of developing Alzheimer's disease are APOE gene and its product apolipoprotein E. This gene occurs in humans in three common variants that differ among each other in exon sequence by one single nucleotide polymorphism. Similar difference exists between human and mammal APOE gene that served as an origin for human forms. This thesis discusses possible evolutionary scenarios of APOE gene and links acquired information to molecular and environmental ascpects of Alzheimer's disease.
Frequency of different aneuploidy in human sex cells, germs, neonates and abortions
Bolotova, Anzhelika ; Šolc, Roman (advisor) ; Škubica, Patrik (referee)
Aneuploidy occurs due to poor chromosome segregation during cell division. In this manner, cells with more or fewer chromosomes than normal can be formed. The most common variants are with one supernumerary or one missing chromosome, i.e. trisomy or monosomy. Less often we may find tetrasomy or pentasomy (two or three supernumerary chromosomes). Such chromosomal abnormalities, which occur during an individual's development, manifest in live births as certain syndromes or defects, but in most cases abortions occur. Interestingly, some chromosomes are more prone to aneuploidy. This may be associated with different chromosome sizes, gene densities and susceptibility to recombination.
Effect of selected inflammatory agents on the osteoclastogenesis
Škubica, Patrik ; Daňková, Pavlína (advisor) ; Hušáková, Markéta (referee)
Introduction: Bone is a highly active tissue throughout life and is a subject to constant remodelling. Main cells responsible for continuous resorption and de novo synthesis of bone matrix are osteoclast, osteoblasts and osteocytes. Osteoclasts are the only known type of cells able to resorb bone. These cells are formed by fusion of precursor cells in bone marrow or peripheral blood in a process called osteoclastogenesis. Formation of osteoclasts may be of importance concerning chronic inflammatory diseases that are linked with higher risk of developing osteoporosis during lifespan. Celiac disease is one of those diseases, which is characterized by destruction of intestinal mucosa after ingestion of gluten by susceptible individuals followed by induction of chronic inflammation. In this work, we focused on the potential role of osteoclastogenesis in the development of osteoporosis in patients with celiac disease and we studied roles of selected inflammatory agents (TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ a cfDNA) with supposed or hypothesised effects on osteoclastogenesis. Material & Methods: We obtained plasma and serum samples from newly diagnosed patients with celiac disease, patients on gluten free diet and healthy controls and analysed concentrations of cfDNA and inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ in...
Evolutionary aspects of Alzheimer's disease. Major role of the Apolipoprotein E
Škubica, Patrik ; Daňková, Pavlína (advisor) ; Jirák, Roman (referee)
Alzheimer's disease is one of the most discussed conditions, due to its huge social and economic consequences. Whereas molecular and genetic aspects causing early onset of the disease are relatively well known, it still remains to be clearly shown how genetic risks and environmental factors interact to ultimately cause the late onset form. Major molecular-genetic factors affecting risk of developing Alzheimer's disease are APOE gene and its product apolipoprotein E. This gene occurs in humans in three common variants that differ among each other in exon sequence by one single nucleotide polymorphism. Similar difference exists between human and mammal APOE gene that served as an origin for human forms. This thesis discusses possible evolutionary scenarios of APOE gene and links acquired information to molecular and environmental ascpects of Alzheimer's disease.

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