National Repository of Grey Literature 8 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
From North to South: A picture guide to the forest habitats of Atlantic Europe
Valtrová, Žofie ; Šizling, Arnošt Leoš (advisor) ; Hanel, Lubomír (referee)
In this diploma thesis I tried to show in a way understandable to high school students, how the landscape of Atlantic Europe changes from north to south. I have created a handbook, that can be used in lessons, called: From North to South: A Picture Guide to the forest habitats of Atlantic Europe. In that handbook, we can follow the landscape change on the profile pictures made in 50 kilometres distances. The pictures are complemented by a textbook on Europe's biomes with a climatic specification, characteristic plants and animals and their relationships to the given environment, and the role of a man in these biomes. The main text is supplemented by an interesting information given separately in boxes. In the second part of the thesis I focused on using my handbook in teaching. I have proposed several ideas that can serve as an inspiration for teachers. This guide tries to make an interdisciplinary link between biology and geography lessons, that will enable students to realize the continual changes among particular biomes in Europe. KEYWORDS biomes, landscape, Atlantic Europe, natural habitats, biology, geography
The selection drift against perfect rationality
Kuběna, Aleš ; Šmíd, Martin (advisor) ; Vlach, Milan (referee) ; Šizling, Arnošt Leoš (referee)
A direct application of game theory to conflicts and cooperation of organisms gives different theoretical predictions for their behaviour than economic models, even if the economic models are based on game theory themselves. These direct predictions are in better accordance with empirical data than the economic models. A difference is observed even if we analyse how organisms deal with sources and how they compete for sources, a problem of apparently economic nature. My thesis shows that these contradictions cannot be removed in a plausible way, even not via introducing new biological restrictions in the "economic" decision model applied to organisms, and not even via enriching the utility functions by evolutionary goals. Thus it is not satisfactory to assume rational agents who replaced a utility maximisation by the maximisation of offspring numbers. In my model, gathering of sources is used in a game-theoretical analysis as a necessary condition, but not as a sufficient condition of evolutionary sustainability. Analýza predicts that the fact whether a rational, collectively rational, altruistic, or different strategy wins in some population, is a matter of random fluctuation. In this model, agents will, with non-neglectable probability, behave in a way that contradicts perfect rationality. This...
Meaning of macroecological patterns and indices: mutual links, taxon invariance and successional sequences of assemblages
Pacák, Robert ; Šizling, Arnošt Leoš (advisor) ; Lepš, Jan (referee)
This diplmoma thesis aims to answer three different questions. First aim of this thesis was to analyze measures of alfa and gama diversity based on Hill numbers and find out, if these measures fullfill the weak principle of taxonomic invariance. In other words, my aim was to proove, independetly of used order of diversity, alfa and gama diversity will be always lower for higher taxonomic groups (eg. genus), than for lower taxonoic groups (eg. species). For this purpose, I used direct mathematical proof, and I showed, that equations for alfa and gama diversity are both taxonomic invariant. Moreover, I analyzed one specific measure of beta diversity as well. I showed, that beta diversity of order zero may increase or decrease in taxonomic switch. Second aim of this thesis was to examine influence of abundances on visualising of preferences of species for different enviromental factors. For thi purpose I desinged new methodology based on well-known RANK plots. This methodology should filter the influence of irregular data collectioning. In other words, this methodology should consider the case, that values of enviromental factors in data are not uniform, which may result into apparent preferences of species. Moreover, this methodology is desinged to take into considerations abundances of species as...
Sense of patterns and indices in macroecology
Pacák, Robert ; Šizling, Arnošt Leoš (advisor) ; Storch, David (referee)
Ecological patterns and indices are often used and highly informative tool, which could express otherwise hardly conceivable ecological facts by poor numerical figures. When using simplification of the complex biological reality, however, we take a risk that the mere number-result will not have sufficient predictive value. Therefore, it is imperative to deeply understand to the mathematical ecological basis of all indices and equations that we decide to apply in our research. This paper will deal primarily with indices and equations for expression biodiversity and their potential environmental meanings in macreocology. Abstrakt Ekologické patterns a indexy jsou často užívaným a silně informativním nástrojem, kterým se dají vyjádřit jinak těžko představitelná ekologická fakta. Takovým zjednodušením komplexní biologické skutečnosti se ovšem vystavujeme nebezpečí, že pouhé číslo- výsledek nebude mít dostatečnou výpovědní hodnotu o reálné situaci. Proto je naprosto nezbytné do hloubky rozumět matematicko ekologickému základu všech indexů a vztahů, které se při výzkumu rozhodneme použít. Tato práce se bude zabývat především indexy a vztahy pro vyjádření biodiverzity a jejich možnými ekologickými interpretacemi v makroekologii. Key words: Ecological patterns, similarity indices, mathematical ecology,...
The relationship between spatial scaling of biodiversity and the number of individuals
Dlouhá, Hana ; Storch, David (advisor) ; Šizling, Arnošt Leoš (referee)
The patterns connected with increasing number of species while enlarging studied area (species-area relationship, SAR) remained one of the most studied topics in ecology. In the past, papers presenting single SAR curves prevailed. Recently, also unifying works have appeared. One approach has focused on the possible relationship between mean number of individuals per species and the rate of increase of number of species with area. According to this theory higher mean species abundance leads to lower values of SAR curve slope. Moreover, there is one prediction based on maximization of entropy principle (MaxEnt) that is able to give us particular values of SAR's slope when we provide the values of mean species abundance. There are also other approaches except for MaxEnt one that deals with mean species abundance and reached similar results. The main aim of this work was to gather all possible data about slopes of SARs and mean species abundances and find out possible relationships between these two variables. I have also included several other variables into the analyses to reveal the importance of them as predictors for the values of the slope. I performed two main groups of analyses. At first I focused on overall slopes of SAR curve (overall slope represents the slope of a line that resulted from...
The relationship between diversity patters, spatial distribution and life-histories in African birds
Tószögyová, Anna ; Storch, David (advisor) ; Šizling, Arnošt Leoš (referee)
Species with particular traits are not randomly distributed across landscape. Habitats provide the templet on which evolution forges characteristic morphologies and life-history strategies and environmental determinants in an ecological processes represent a filter for certain species with appropriate traits. It is essential to understand how spatial differences in community composition are affected by geographical patterns in a distribution of species characteristics. I was interested in searching and determining the relationships between species traits and environmental parameters within avifauna of south Africa. I investigated the effect of which variables of environment most influenced bird assemblage composition and distribution of species traits in space. Relationships between the environmental factors and the species traits and life-history stategies were investigated using RLQ analysis, a multivariate ordination method able to relate a species trait table to an environmental table by way of a species presence/absence table. The first axis of the RLQ analysis was highly statistically significant and explained most of the variability. It was strongly positively related to increasing productivity, to atributes reflecting vegetation character and to availability of water sources. The rest of...
Links between nest positions and intraanual dynamics of Blackcaps’ territories.
Vojtěchovská, Eva ; Šizling, Arnošt Leoš (advisor) ; Sedláček, Ondřej (referee)
This diploma theses intention is to study territory dynamics and it's relationship to parameters of territories, position of nest and reproductive success of blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla). I assumed, that parameters of territories are depended on breeding phases and on intraspecific interaction with neighbours and conversely, that position of nest is depended on the territory parameters. The research of territory dynamics was performed in a nature preserve Lipovka (14,6 ha) in breeding seasons of years 2006 and 2007. Main method of the research was mapping territories of blackcaps, based on registrations of colour-marked males (territory owners) and finding and observation of nests. On all found nests we noted their position on the locality, progress of breeding, breeding size and success and nest concealment. During two breeding seasons we catched and colour-marked 58 individuals. In 2006 we mapped 25 pairs of blackcaps, which were breeding and we found 30 nests of which 13 were successful. In 2007 22 pairs were breeding and we found 33 nests of which 14 were successful. Results have shown, that male territory parameters are influenced by passing breeding phase. So, male's territory, is greatest in before and after breeding phases, whereas the size significantly decreases through egg phase to nestling...

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