National Repository of Grey Literature 63 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Biological effects of complex extracts from yeast and algae biomass
Bočán, David ; Byrtusová, Dana (referee) ; Matoušková, Petra (advisor)
This bachelor thesis was focused on optimalization of extractions of active compounds from microalgae and carotenogenic yeasts. Other part of this work was focused on characterization of these extracts and their tests of cytotoxicity on human keratinocytes. In theoretical part a literary research which summarizes the basic properties and cultivation conditions of used microorganisms was conducted. Then there were listed an examples of antioxidant compounds found in these microorganisms as well as their properties. Finally the term cytotoxicity and methods of its measurement were clarified. The practical part of this thesis consists of series of extractions from mentioned microorganisms. These extracts were characterized by the content determination of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and also chlorophyll and carotenoid compounds. Determination of antioxidant capacity and SPF were done too. Lastly the cytotoxicity of chosen extracts was measured using the MTT test.
Byrtusová, Dana ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Kovalčík, Adriána (referee) ; Márová, Ivana (advisor)
Beta-glukany jsou polysacharidy složeny z monomerů D-glukózy. V dnešní době se -glukany těší zvýšené pozornosti zejména kvůli imunomodulační aktivitě a využitelnosti ve farmaceutickém a potravinařském průmyslu. Saccharomyces cerevisiae je dodnes jediným kvasinkovým zdrojem požívaným v biotechnologické produkci. Avšak některé kvasinky z oddělení Basidiomycetes, které jsou schopny produkce lipidů a karotenoidů, mohou být využity rovněž jako alternativní zdroj -glukanů. Dizertační práce se zabývá možností a optimalizací produkce -glukanů a dalších mikrobiálních sacharidů u karotenogenních kvasinek a mikrořas. Testovány byli zástupci rodů Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces, Cystofilobasidium a Dioshegia. Z nekarotenogenních kvasinek byly do screeningu zařazeny kvasinky rodu Metschnikowia, askomycetní kvasinky a z mikrořas zástupci zelených a červených řas. Experimentální část cílí rovněž na možnosti koprodukce dalších metabolitů, jako jsou lipidy, pigmenty a extracelulární polymery. První část experimentu se zabývá vlivem čtyř C/N poměrů (10:1, 40:1, 70:1 a 100:1) na produkci biomasy, -glukanů, karotenoidů a lipidů. Ze všech testovaných kmenů, S. cerevisiae CCY 21-4-102, C. infirmominiatum CCY 17-18-4, P. rhodozyma CCY 77-1-1 a R. kratochvilovae CCY 20-2-26 vykazovaly nejvyšší produkci -glukanů a byly proto vybrány k podrobnější optimalizaci, zejména osmotického stresu, teploty a zdroje dusíku v kultivačním médiu. Dodatečně, kmen R. kratochvilovae CCY 20-2-26 je schopný produkce extracelulárních glykolipidů a S. pararoseus CCY 19-9-6 extracelulárních polysacharidů. Následně bylo stanoveno množství -glukanů u dalších dvanácti kmenů S. cerevisiae a rovněž možnost produkce polysacharidů u mikrořas.
Study of genome of Metschnikowia yeasts by molecular methods
Schneiderwindová, Nicole ; Matoušková, Petra (referee) ; Němcová, Andrea (advisor)
Yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia belonging to the family Metschnikowiacea are yeasts characterized by vegetative propagation through multilateral budding. These are yeasts widely distributed in nature. More than 35 species occurring have been defined in the wild. They most often occur on flowers, fruits, but also on insects or human skin. They have a wide range of uses due to their antifungal effects in agriculture and the cosmetics industry. This bachelor thesis deals with the study of usage of molecular methods to characterize selected species of yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. It focuses on a detailed description of the yeast cell structure, karyotype and methods of reproduction in the theoretical part of the work. In the practical part on optimization and description of molecular methods including pulse gel electrophoresis methods used to separate the yeast genome and their subsequent observation of changes in individual parts of genome. First, the yeast was cultured under special conditions that are characteristic of Metschnikowia yeasts, then yeast DNA was isolated using methods suitable for DNA isolation, which was further examined by the PFGE molecular method. The DNA isolation procedure was first optimized for individual yeast strains, as it was necessary to verify the required ratio of low melting agarose to isolated DNA. That was because of it was important for the resulting gel blocks to be suitable for measurement by PFGE analysis. By optimizing the method was possible to create ideal blocks of isolated yeast DNA, which were subsequently subjected to PFGE analysis. Several measurements of PFGE analysis were performed at different time intervals in order to separate small and large yeast chromosomes. The CHEF standard of the yeast Hansenula wingei and the standard of the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe were used for the measurements. According to the measurement results, it can be determined that the yeast DNA isolation procedure and subsequent analysis by pulsed gel electrophoresis were successful, as the number of chromosomes of all used yeast species of the genus Metschnikowia was determined.
Chemical signaling among microorganisms
Karásek, Filip ; Palková, Zdena (advisor) ; Převorovský, Martin (referee)
The work summarizes the knowledge about chemical communication among microorganisms, focusing mainly on the quorum sensing phenomenon, but briefly discussing also other molecules with signaling function. The work presents fundamental information on quorum sensing and some other signaling molecules in selected grampositive and gramnegative bacteria and in yeast. It also describes an universal system of communication among different bacteria and briefly mentions communication between bacteria and yeast. Key words: Quorum sesnig, signal molecule, signal pathway, bacteria, yeast, communication
Analysis of glucans in plant and microbial samples
Vít, Radek ; Němcová, Andrea (referee) ; Márová, Ivana (advisor)
The aim of the diploma thesis is study of glucans production in selected species of yeasts, algae and plants. Cultivation conditions for yeast strains were performed to gain increased production of glucans under different temperature conditions and in media of different composition. Into the set of tested yeasts species strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CCY 6646), Sporidiobolus pararoseus (CCY 19-9-6), Phaffia rhodozyma (CCY 77-1), Rhodotorula glutinis (CCY 20-78-26) and Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum (CCY 17-18-4) were enrolled. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultivated as a control strain because of its verified production of -glucans. -glucans were determinated by the enzyme kit K-YBGL Megazyme. For comparison, algal strain Euglena gracilis (CCALA 349), some species of mushrooms (shiitake, oyster mushroom, garden champignon and Jew’s ear) and cereals (wheat, rye, oats, rice and barley) were analysed too. Further, fatty acid content in the yeast cells was determined by the GC/FID. The best producer of yeast -glucans was R. glutinis CCY 20-7-26, which showed the highest biomass production (12-14 g/l) and also a relatively high amount of -glucans (25-30 %), in cultivation at 15 °C in a medium containing yeast extract in combination with ammonium sulphate. The presence of -glucans has been demonstrated in the microalgae, Euglena gracilis CCALA 349, as well as in samples of higher fungi and cereals.
Study of yeasts transglycosylases
Čurillová, Natália ; Ing.Hana Schusterová, Ph.D. (referee) ; Stratilová, Eva (advisor)
This study is interested in properties of fungal transglycosylases, specifically Phr1, Phr2 and Crh2. These enzymes are involved in the remodelling of yeast cell walls due to their cleavage of structural donor polysaccharides and transfer of their fragments to the other acceptor (poly)saccharide molecules. The mammalian cells do not contain cell walls, nor cell wall transglycosylases, that´s why these enzymes are possible targets for antifungal agents. In this diploma thesis the effect of 67 commercially available inhibitors on Phr1 and Phr2 enzymes was studied by rapid screening. In the case of the Phr1 enzyme, two inhibitors showed a potential effect which was subsequently tested by size exclusion chromatography column incorporated into HPLC device. None of the inhibitors were found to have an inhibitory effect on Phr1 or Phr2 enzymes in contrast to DMSO in which all inhibitors were dissolved. The mode of action of Phr enzymes was also studied by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The first method allowed to monitor the formation of products only in the later stages of the reaction, but more sensitive size exclusion chromatography showed the product formation at the beginning of the reaction. Phr1 cleaved the donor substrate near the non-reducing end and forms small fragments that are transfered to labeled acceptors during the whole reaction. Phr2 utilized random action pattern, thus creating products with higher molecular weight from the beginning of reaction. The effect of the polymerization degree of acceptor on it´s affinity with the Crh2 was also studied. The Michaelis-Menten constants showed no effect of acceptor lenght on the affinity between enzyme and substrate.
Study of the differences in the architecture of the binding pockets of two major MDR pumps of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pdr5p and Snq2p, using their common substrates
Backová, Lenka ; Gášková, Dana (advisor) ; Krůšek, Jan (referee)
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is responsible for the decrease in drug effectiveness on pathogenic microorganisms or tumours. One of the mechanisms of multidrug resistance is drug transport out of the cell (efflux) by membrane transporters - pumps. Main MDR pumps of a yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae are Pdr5p and Snq2p, who share high amino acid sequence identity. This thesis focuses on the differences of these pumps, their binding pockets and their arrangement. The binding pocket of Pdr5p is better researched and comparing the results with those of pump Snq2p leads to broader knowledge about the binding pocket of Snq2p. We use disc diffusion assay to determine common substrates of both pumps, ketoconazole and bifonazole. These substrates are used in potentiometric fluorescent probe diS-C3(3) assay. Results of these experiments lead us to the findings that the binding pocket of Snq2p has multiple binding sites. Binding pockets of pump Pdr5p and Snq2p differ in binding sites and their conformation. However, the conformation of both pumps is dynamic, which has been shown after the addition of glucose to supply the pumps with energy. 1
The role of ABC and MFS transporters in drug resistance of pathogenic Candida yeasts
Chaun, Martin ; Sychrová, Hana (advisor) ; Půta, František (referee)
Pathogens and their hosts lead an ancient battle of survival among themselves. New strategies are constantly being developed to defeat an opponent and counter-strategy to resist to a rival. Recently, due to increased drug use, pathogens have adapted to the prevalence of these substances in the environment, and are increasingly unresponsive to drug treatment, resulting in drug resistance status. Progressively increasing drug resistance also affects the most common fungal pathogens, Candida genus. One of the mechanisms by which organisms are able to withstand the effects of toxic substances is their transport out of the cell by membrane transport proteins. These transporters are members of the ABC and MFS protein superfamily in the Candida genus. This thesis presents ABC and MFS proteins involved in drug efflux in four Candida species, namely Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida auris.
Production of biologically active substances by yeasts and algae cultivated on different nutrition sources
Kohútová, Darina ; Němcová, Andrea (referee) ; Márová, Ivana (advisor)
Carotenoids are lipophilic pigments and the most widespread antioxidants occurring in nature with great application potencial in the cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food industry. Lipids are one of the essential organic substances of living organisms as a nutrition source and energy supply. This work deals with the optimalization of nutritional characteristics of cultivation medium for cultivation of carotenogenic yeasts and algae. Two waste substrates were used and different nitrogen sources, NaCl concentrations, and various C/N ratios were applied. The biomass obtained was analysed by chromatography, and the production of carotenoids, ergosterol, coenzyme Q and lipids was evaluated. Of the tested nitrogen sources urea was the most favourable for yeasts, and sodium nitrate for algae. Higher salt concentration had a negative effect on yeast growth but increased degree of fatty acid unsaturation. Tested C/N led different effects: while the C/N ratio 16 most suitable for growth, the increasing C/N ratio caused the increase of the polyunsaturated fatty acids content. Of the used yeast strains, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Sporidiobolus salmonicolor exhibited the best production characteristics, of the used algae strains, it was Chlorella.
The antimicrobial effects of plant extracts against yeast skin mycoses
Posztósová, Gyöngyi ; Rapta, Marek (referee) ; Němcová, Andrea (advisor)
Superficial cutaneous mycoses are relatively widespread and affect more and more people. Currently are used drugs as ketoconazole, fluconazole and others to treat mycoses. Pathogens occasionally become resistant to these drugs. Medicinal plants have a long history in alternative medicine and they could be a good solution. This bachelor thesis deals with the study of antifungal activity of selected plants. Were prepared ethanol extracts of basil, betony, eucalyptus, turmeric, geranium, oregano and ginseng. The theoretical part of thesis contains a review of the most frequently occurring dermatomycoses. It describes plants as sources of natural substances with antimicrobial effect and the content of selected active substances. The experimental part is focused on the analysis of plant extracts. Was determined the content of total polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidants. The antimicrobial activity was monitored against yeast Candida glabrata and against G- and G+ bacteria, specifically Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus. Finally, the cosmetic products with the addition of plant extract were prepared and tested against mycoses.

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