National Repository of Grey Literature 23 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
How does the fluid intake affect the gastrointestinal absorbtion of levothyroxine.
Kročová, Radka ; Krátký, Jan (advisor) ; Hána, Václav (referee)
Thyroid diseases belong among the most common endocrinopathies, and, therefore, thyroid hormones are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in the Czech Republic, as well as in the world. Even though untreated thyropathies may cause several health complications for the patients, poorly administered treatment can also hurt the health of the individual. Several factors make the treatment difficult. A type of fluid used to ingest the drug belongs among such factors, and it represents the focus of this Master thesis. As is indicated by its title, the thesis focuses explicitly on the gastrointestinal absorption of levothyroxine after being ingested with water, black tea or cow's milk. The thesis was aimed at determining whether and to what extent, if any, the fluids may influence the gastrointestinal absorption of the drug. Based on this premise, research was conducted with six test subjects who underwent a relatively challenging absorption test with four blood samples taken over six hours. The data set (altogether 56 samples taken from all test subjects) had revealed that the gastrointestinal absorption of levothyroxine reached its maximum values when the drug was ingested with water. The other test fluids impair the bioavailability of L-thyroxine, and patients should wait to indulge in them at least...
Accumulation 99mTc-pertechnetate in the thyroid gland
BARTOŠ, Štěpán
The objective of this bachelor thesis is to answer the following research question: "What is the extent of normal values of Technetium-99m accumulation in the thyroid gland?" I gained the answer by collecting data and subsequently assessing results of static scintigraphy of thyroid gland examined in 34 patients at the Department of Nuclear Medicine in the hospital Nemocnice České Budějovice. The reference file of patients was collected from January to December 2017. On the basis of clinical data on the examination request form, the supervisor excluded results that showed symptoms of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism or thyroiditis. The anatomy and physiology of the thyroid gland and parathyroid glands are described in the introduction of the theoretical part of the bachelor thesis. The following chapter characterizes thyroid disorders. The last chapter describes the examination of thyroid gland using methods of nuclear medicine, check-up, radiopharmaceutical drugs used and making and processing an image. The practical part describes the procedure of elaborating my bachelor thesis at the Department of Nuclear Medicine in the hospital Nemocnice České Budějovice. There I worked with evaluating computer program Xeleris with the Thyroid Uptake Index application. I plotted the region of interest around the thyroid gland manually and calculated the value of accumulation in the thyroid gland with a programme. I processed the gained values statistically using formulas to count the average, standard deviation and percentile in Microsoft Excel. I fixed the percentile for 10 % and 90 %. Calculations show that a normal value of Technetium-99m accumulation in the thyroid gland ranges from 0.4 % to 1.8 % and the average is 0.85 %. This work can serve as evaluation of normal values of accumulation during examining thyroid gland at departments of nuclear medicine.
Relationship of body composition to endocrine orbitopathy
Nová, Veronika ; Hána, Václav (advisor) ; Krátký, Jan (referee)
In the theoretical part I briefly introduce the reader to the current state of given topic and describe the function of thyroid gland, how much important it is for our organism and also the possible influence of nutrition on this organ. The next chapters discuss endocrine orbitopathy. Endocrine orbitopathy is a chronic ocular disease, which is frequent in patients with Graves - Basedow disease. I focus not only on the epidemiology and causes of the disease, but also on assessing the severity and treatment of endocrine orbitopathy. The practical part focuses on eating habits and lifestyle of patients with endocrine orbitopathy and assesses the possible effect of body composition on endocrine orbitopathy. At the same time, 4 hypotheses were established. The first hypothesis assumed that higher % body fat and higher BMI may influence the course of endocrine orbitopathy. The second, that nicotine-dependent patients with endocrine orbitopathy predominate over individuals who do not use this addictive substance. In the third hypothesis, I assumed that patients with endocrine orbitopathy would have another associated civilization diseases. And the last, the fourth hypothesis compared the effect of fish consumption on the level of selenium in the blood. To collect data, I used questionnaires inquiring...
Thyroid gland of calves
GRÉK, Miloš
There were thyroid glands of 4 calves examined in this work. Calves were of the Holstein breed and were observed during the first 3 months of their life. Investigated parameters included levels of thyroid hormones and their relation to TSH, age related changes in Ca, Mg, P, protein, urea, triglyceride and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GMT) levels in blood plasma, length, width and perimeter of follicles and height of follicular cells. Mean total T4 content was 72,56+-17,76 nmol/l, T3 3,22+-1,04 nmol/l and TSH 0,94+-0,32 ng/ml. There was a positive correlation between the hormones and their free forms, and between T3 and TSH. T4 level rose with age, while T3 level fell. Protein and urea content rose with age as well, triglyceride and GMT content dropped. Ca, Mg and P content was relatively stable during the whole experiment. A higher number of small and medium sized follicles were observed in the thyroid glands. Mean follicle length was 86,24+-45,36 microns. Follicular cells reached a mean height of 7,95+-1,30 microns. All of the follicular parameters were highly individual, except follicular cell height.
Embryotoxicity test of thyroxine on chick embryo.
Petrušková, Michaela ; Peterka, Miroslav (advisor) ; Novotná, Božena (referee)
Thyroxine is the main thyroid gland's hormone. The state, when the thyroid gland does not produce enough of it into the bloodstream is called hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is related with several health complications; therefore it is required to take replacement therapy in adequate doses. Concerning pregnant women, it is important especially to keep the blood level of thyroxine in the normal, because increasing or decreasing of it, has an adverse effect on the health of the mother and also on the normal child development. The objective of my thesis was to describe malformations spectra of thyroxine, to find out the beginning of its embryotoxicity dose range for chick embryos, and recalculate this value for human embryos, allowing us to decide, if the level of thyroxine was increased by a replacement therapy, this could be embryotoxic for human. The experimental part of my work was to search an alternative method for testing embryotoxicity on chick embryos in ovo - CHEST, testing of embryotoxic potential of the thyroxine. Embryotoxicity is a feature of the external factors affecting the embryo, it may manifest as lethality, growth retardation, and teratogenicity; which is an ability of the external factor to induce the developmental defect. The most common manifestation of embryotoxicity in this...
Laboratory tests for thyroid function assessment from the economic point of view
Stehlíková, Petra ; Martínková, Markéta (advisor) ; Hýsková, Veronika (referee)
In 2011 Recommendation for laboratory diagnostics of functional and autoimmune thyroid diseases was published. Its target is to recommend correct method when choosing thyroid examination parameters to general practitians and thus find a way how to save money on useless examinations which then can be used by hospital in other area. To verify physicians adhere to these recommendations file of VFN patients in Prague for year 2011 was used and statistically evaluated. Watched parameters included thyrotropin (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (T4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti - TPO), thyroglobulin antibodies (anti - Tg), thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroxine - binding globulin (TBG). Basic test according to published recommendation should include only TSH and if out of reference limits then it should be followed by FT4 test or antidote assessment. Other parameters are unnecessary for initial examination, some of them are not used anymore or should be examined only by clinics specialized in endocrinology. Based on the file records many physicians are still ordering unnecessary examination parameters. In one year 13,8 % of unnecessary parameters out of 44 415 thyroid function examinations were determined. This is 1 095 013 points that could by...
Changes of thermal thresholds in patients treated with hypothyroidism.
Zůna, Miroslav ; Marčišová, Hana (advisor) ; Čakrt, Ondřej (referee)
Diplomová práce Miroslav Zůna 3 Author's first name and surname: Miroslav Zůna, BA. Title of the master thesis: Changes of thermal thresholds in patients treated with hypothyroidism. Department: Department of Physiotherapy and Sports Medicine Supervisor: Hana Marčišová, MA. The year of presentation: 2013 Abstract: Disorders of thyroid gland together with diabetes are most common endocrine diseases in Czech Republic and worldwide, too. Myopathy and neuropathy, caused by reduced amount of thyroid hormones, are mentioned in current literature, however pathaphysiological mechanisms stay unclear. To evaluate the state of small nerve fibers that should be affected first, we use thermal threshold testing, setting the thermal threshold for warm and cold stimuli in different locations. Patients with hypothyroidism show in most of the measured locations higher thermal threshold than that of the control group, however these results are not significant. Significant change of thermal sensation of cold stimulus is demonstrated in location thenar. Patients with hypothyroidism also have a higher degree of inaccuracy detection of thermal stimuli. A greater number of significant conclusions can not seem to reach for a small number of probands participating in our study or due to ongoing therapy and the resulting normal state...
The role of radiologist assistant in radioiodine diagnostics and treatment of thyroid cancer
Hrbek, Jaroslav ; Táborská, Kateřina (referee) ; Vlček, Petr (advisor)
The bachelors thesis on the task of a radiological assistant during radioiodine diagnostics and treatment of thyroid gland carcinomas deals with the issue of thyroid gland carcinomas in the Czech Republic. It contains a brief overview of the types of carcinomas that affect the thyroid gland, their classification, diagnostics and therapy, concentrating on utilisation of modern examination methods and therapeutic practices, including among others application of radioiodine. The thesis also contains cases of four patients with similar diagnoses, the comparison of the development of whose respective illnesses I found interesting. Last but not least, the thesis includes a number of annexes comprising among others tables with important instructions for patients before and after application of radioiodine, and photographs from the site where the radioiodine application takes place Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Ontogenetické změny štítné žlázy králíka
BLÁHOVÁ, Kateřina
The literature review of this thesis describes the thyroid gland in terms of morphology, physiology, microscopic structure, and its prenatal and postnatal development. The practical part focused on the monitoring of morphometric changes of the thyroid gland during the first 39 days of postnatal development at 24 New Zealand white rabbits. Morphometric measurements carried out were: the circumference, length and width of follicles and the height of thyrocytes. At birth, the average circumference of follicles was 134.54 ? 7,81m, with length of 41.85 ? 0.93 ?m, width of 39.45 ? 4.05 ?m, and the average height of thyrocytes was 5.12 ? 0.06 ?m. The measurements were repeated in 39 days of age (at the end of the experiment) with the average circumference of follicles being 231.53 ? 37.95 ?m, length of 71.09 ? 12.19 ?m, width of 68.97 ? 10.02 ?m and the height of thyrocytes 5.69 ? 0.42 ?m. All parameters with the exception of thyrocytes showed increased values. On average the circumference of follicles from birth to 39 days of age changed by 72.1%, the height of follicles by 69.9%, with the highest difference in width by 77.4%. At the age of 5 days the reduction in follicle size was observed, possibly due to the adaptation of thyroid gland to the postnatal period.

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