National Repository of Grey Literature 7 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds of selenium and tellurium
Nováková, Eliška
The presented thesis deals with UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds of Se and Te from various species. The aim of the project was to expand the current state of knowledge by the application of photocatalytic reduction of higher oxidation states of Se and Te for the speciation analysis based on UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds. The first step of the study was the assembly of the apparatus for the photocatalysed UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds. The material of reactor and the whole experimental set-up were based on literature survey and previous research done in our research group. Experiments were directed towards finding the optimum conditions for generation of volatile compounds of selected model elements Se and Te. Se was studied as the element most commonly determined by the UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds. Conversely, Te was selected as a model analyte representing elements forming less stable volatile compounds. The second part was the application of the optimised method of photocatalysed UV- photochemical generation of volatile Se compound to the determination of Se in water matrices, liquid certified reference materials and also samples of dietary supplements. TiO2/UV-photochemical generation was also successfully modified to...
UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds of selenium and tellurium
Nováková, Eliška ; Hraníček, Jakub (advisor) ; Komárek, Josef (referee) ; Šíma, Jan (referee)
The presented thesis deals with UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds of Se and Te from various species. The aim of the project was to expand the current state of knowledge by the application of photocatalytic reduction of higher oxidation states of Se and Te for the speciation analysis based on UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds. The first step of the study was the assembly of the apparatus for the photocatalysed UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds. The material of reactor and the whole experimental set-up were based on literature survey and previous research done in our research group. Experiments were directed towards finding the optimum conditions for generation of volatile compounds of selected model elements Se and Te. Se was studied as the element most commonly determined by the UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds. Conversely, Te was selected as a model analyte representing elements forming less stable volatile compounds. The second part was the application of the optimised method of photocatalysed UV- photochemical generation of volatile Se compound to the determination of Se in water matrices, liquid certified reference materials and also samples of dietary supplements. TiO2/UV-photochemical generation was also successfully modified to...
Electrochemical generation of tellurium and bismuth hydrides for AAS
Resslerová, Tina ; Hraníček, Jakub (advisor) ; Šíma, Jan (referee)
Tellurium and bismuth are non-biogenous elements, which can be accumulated in human body. The aim of this work is focused on the determination of these elements by the electrochemical hydride generation with non-membrane electrolytic cell with quartz tube - atomic absorption spectrometry. The first step of the work was to optimize parameters for the continuous setup measurements and to obtain its figures of merit. After this, the arrangement with most suitable conditions for determination of these elements was converted to the flow injection setup (FIA) and all experimental parameters were again optimized and its figures of merit were obtained. The conditions of hydride generation were studied for platinum, lead and silver cathodes with hydrochloric and sulphuric acids and their sodium salts as electrolytes. The optimizations of the FIA setup were performed on platinum cathode in hydrochloric acid for bismuth and on lead cathode in sulphuric acid for tellurium. The limit of detection achieved for the generation of tellurium hydride was 1.1 ppm with a linear range up to 20 ppm; for the bismuth hydride the limit of detection was 9.5 ppm and limit of linearity 50 ppm. Keywords Bismuth, tellurium, electrochemical hydride generation, atomic absorption spectroscopy, flow injection analysis
Electrochemical generation of tellurium hydride for AAS
Resslerová, Tina ; Hraníček, Jakub (advisor) ; Červený, Václav (referee)
Tellurium is non-biological element which is not common in the earth. It can be accumulated in a body and cause many health problems. In this work, tellurium is determined by the electrochemical hydride generation technique coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry with quartz tube atomizer. In the first part of this work, various relevant parameters of tellurium hydride generation were optimized to achieve high sensitivity. Under the optimal working parameters, calibration dependences and other basic characteristics were measured. Finally, the influence of oxygen added on the different places of set up was carried out. Optimized parameters were flow rate of the carrier gas, generation current, flow rate and concentration of electrolytes. Optimizations were measured for two different catholytes: hydrochloric and sulfuric acid, with similar results. In addition the calibration was measured with orthophosporic acid. Further experiments with oxygen were performed for sulfuric acid as the catholyte. Influence of oxygen on the baseline and the process of determination were performed, for both continuous and limited time addition.
Applications of experimental mineralogy to Te containing systems: Crystal structures, phase relations
Laufek, František ; Rieder, Milan (advisor) ; Palatinus, Lukáš (referee) ; Johan, Zdeněk (referee)
This dissertation contributes to the crystal chemistry of Te. The primary goals of the thesis are synthesis and crystal structure analysis of new Te-bearing ternary phases. The first part of the thesis shows significance of experimental mineralogy in research of Te containing systems. It briefly describes a novel approach to the study of new mineral species - the possibility of using synthetic analogues for their detailed mineralogical characterization. The results of the experimental mineralogical study in the Ni-Sb-Te ternary system at 400řC are reported in the second part. According to the performed experiments, two solid solutions λ1- Ni(Sb1-xTex)1+y (0<x<1, where 109.09.0 ≤≤⇒≥≈∀ yx ) and λ2 - NiSb1-xTe2x (0.28<x<0.66) dominate the system at 400řC. A characteristic feature of most phases present in the Ni-Sb-Te system at 400řC is apparent tendency to the Sb - Te substitution. The third part deals with the characterisation of the new mineral pašavaite Pd3Pb2Te2, which was found at the Noril'sk-Talnakh Ni-Cu camp, Russia. The synthetic Pd3Pb2Te2 phase was used for thorough mineralogical characterization of this new mineral species. Pašavaite displays orthorhombic symmetry, space group Pmmn. The structural identity between natural grains and synthetic Pd3Pb2Te was supported by the EBSD study. The...
Multicomponental Preconcentration of As, Sb, Se and Te on Modified Silica, Their Determination by ICP-AES (ICP-MS) and Application for Waters
Urbánková, Kristýna ; Řehůřková, Irena (referee) ; Kanický, Viktor (referee) ; Ventura, Karel (referee) ; Sommer, Lumír (advisor)
The determination of inorganic speciations of arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium in natural waters demands often separation and preconcentration. Solid phase extraction is a very effective method for these purposes. In this paper the separation and preconcentration of these microelements is realised on the basis of modified silica Separon SGX C18, SGX C8, SGX CN, SGX NH2, SGX Phenyl and strongly basic anion Exchanger SGX AX. The sorption was provided in the presence of cationic surfactants such as benzyldimethyl dodecylammonium bromide (Ajatin), benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (Zephyramine), 1-ethoxycarbonylpentadecyltrimetrhylammonium bromide (Septonex) and selected complexing agents 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR), 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acide (8-HQS), 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (PYR), amonium 1-pyrrolidinecarbodithioate (APDC), sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DTC) or thiourea(Thur). The interactions of the formed ion associate with the sorbent shows a complicated character which has not been cleared as yet. The previous conditioning of the sorbent plays an outstanding role. Thus, the sorption efficiency was studied in the presence and absence of surfactant and of selected organic complexing agents. Moreover, the influence of pH of the sorbed solution as well as the speed and the volume of the solution running through the sorbent and the type and volume of the eluent on the resulting sorption efficiency was evaluated. The sorption was successfully carried out from 50-1000 ml of solution which allows the 100 fold increase of the preconcentration factor and the determination of the microelements in g.l-1 instead of mg.l-1 by using the common ICP-AES. The influence of macroelements occurring in waters as well as B, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V and Zn in comparable concentrations involve less than 5% error. After the quantitative elution of microelements, the organic solvents were evaporated under IR lamps prior to the determination by ICP-AES and |ICP-MS. The conditions for the direct determination of arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium in g.l-1 with ICP-MS were also described in detail in the absence and presence of internal standards Ge and Bi. However, even in this case the preconcentration on silica in the presence of surfactant and selected organic complexants was also tested. When the sorption was followed from 500 ml a 50 fold enrichment factor is reached and the sensitivity for the microelements is improved. The direct determination and the sorption of microelements were applied on synthetic and real waters (dirinking, surface, mineral and sea waters). Instrumental and practical detection limits for various water samples were evaluated according to IUPAC. The results from 1000 ml solution of real waters after sorption on modified silica and the final determination of microelements with ICP-AES were compared with those from ICP-MS without sorption using the method of standards addition in the presence of suitable internal standards. By comparison of results for synthetic and real water samples the error of the determination of microelements was evaluated.
Studium elektronové struktury a krystalických fází teluru z prvních principů
Hemzalová, P. ; Legut, Dominik ; Šob, Mojmír
We study the energetics of seven crystalline phases of tellurium (trigonal, rhombohedral, orthorhombic, monoclinic, simple cubic, body-centered cubic and face-centered cubic phase) from first principles in order to reveal the relation between them and to advance our fundamental understanding of behavior of tellurium at high pressures.

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