National Repository of Grey Literature 38 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Speciation genomics in nightingales
Mořkovský, Libor ; Reifová, Radka (advisor) ; Macholán, Miloš (referee) ; Piálek, Lubomír (referee)
Speciationisusuallyaslowprocessoccurringoverthousandstomillionsofyears.Thismakes speciation research difficult because no direct observation or manipulation is possible. At best, we can gain some insight by inferring the population history and structure in very fine detail by investigating genetic markers in multiple individuals of the nascent species. Today, speciationresearchisinanunprecedentedpositionthankstotheadventofhigh-throughput sequencingmethods,whichmakeiteasier and cheaper than ever before to evaluate multiple markers in many individuals. Speciation is not a straightforward process that happens in the same way every time, but rather a phenomenon occurring when genetic and ecological circumstancesactinginsymphonyultimatelyleadtoreproductiveisolationoftwosubpopula- tions. This is why it is important to study multiple model systems to understand the general principles behind speciation. We worked with two species of nightingales (Luscinia luscinia andL.megarhynchos)thatdivergedapproximately1.8Mya,likelyduetoglacialfluctuations in Europe. Our main goal was to use these new high-throughput sequencing methods to (1) detect interspecific hybrids between the species, (2) estimate levels of interspecific gene flow,(3)findareasofthenightingalegenomethatunderliereproductiveisolationand,finally, (4)...
Why so specious? The role of pollinators and symbionts in plant population structure and speciation along elevational gradients.
This thesis explores the role mutualist pollinators and their symbionts play in the genetic structuring and speciation of their host plants along an elevational gradient in Papua New Guinea. Using the fig and fig-wasp mutualism as a model system, we employed high-throughput sequencing techniques to explore fine-scale population genomics of both fig and wasps along their elevational range. We found there to be clear lowland and highland clustering of tree populations along the gradient, often with a mid-elevation contact zone. In the case of the pollinating wasps, we retrieved the same clustering except in this case, the genetic difference between clusters was high enough as to consider them as separate species. This result supports evidence from other studies challenging the cospeciation paradigm of one wasp species per fig species. In addition, we explore ecological traits which may promote, or at least, maintain, reproductive isolation between fig (sub)species along with behavioural preference tests from pollinating wasps. In order to further investigate the mechanisms promoting wasp speciation along the gradient, we describe Wolbachia infection status as well as strain type. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is often invoked as a possible speciation agent since it can rapidly provoke and maintain reproductive isolation between otherwise freely interbreeding insect populations. Finally, we explore non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) diversity along the gradient for a subset of our focal species. Our study reveals that there is a tight relationship between NPFW diversity and host species, and a mid-elevation peak.
Speciation analysis of As and Hg in biological material
Petry-Podgórska, Inga ; Matoušek, Tomáš ; Migašová, M. ; Zemanová, Veronika ; Pavlík, Milan ; Pavlíková, D. ; Kratzer, Jan
This work was focused on an analysis of arsenic in selected plants and mercury in hair. A combination of HPLC and ICP-MS was used for analysis of biological tissues extracts. The\nspeciation analysis of low molecular arsenic and mercury species like inorganic iAs3+ and iAs5+, methylarsenic and dimethylarsenic forms was carried out with hydride generation (HG)\ntechnique, arsenic peptides and inorganic mercury (iHg2+) and its methylated form (MHg+) - with reverse phase (RP) chromatography and detected by ICP-MS.
Genomic approaches for studying speciation
Vozárová, Zuzana ; Reifová, Radka (advisor) ; Hulva, Pavel (referee)
Technological advances in DNA sequencing along with the emergence of new informatics approaches have created new possibilities in many biological fields. In this bachelor thesis, I will focus on the informatics approaches used in speciation genomics, that is research field focused on the problematics of the origin of new species. I will introduce some statistical methods used by these approaches for parameter estimation. The four particular methods I will write about are Maximum likelihood estimation, Bayesian model, Markov chain Monte Carlo and Iterative approach. I will describe several methods used for the detection of interspecific hybrids and recent as well as historical interspecific gene flow. These methods include NewHybrids, the hybrid index, genomic and spatial clines and coalescent-based methods. The thesis demonstrates the usefulness of the connection of applied mathematics and genomics for addressing general biological issues, and speciation particularly.
Analysis of structure and origin of multiple sex chromosomes in \kur{Leptidea} wood white butterflies
Previous studies have shown a dynamic karyotype evolution and the presence of complex sex chromosome systems with 3-4 W chromosomes and 3-6 Z chromosomes in Leptidea wood white butterflies. To dissect the evolutionary history of multiple Z chromosomes of Leptidea species, we used identified and selected bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones containing orthologous genes of Bombyx mori chromosome Z and 17, isolated them from the available BAC library and used them as probes for physical mapping by BAC-FISH, first in L. juvernica, then in the closely related L. sinapis. In both Leptidea species, the majority of BAC clones corresponding to the linkage group Z of the B. mori reference genome hybridized to one chromosome of the complicated sex chromosome multivalent. Thus, we named it as Z1 chromosome. Location of all Z-derived BAC clones was identical in both species suggesting a conserved synteny and gene order between L. juvernica and L. sinapis Z1 chromosome. Moreover, our findings indicate that the Z1 chromosome is probably the ancestral Z chromosome in the genus Leptidea. Results of BAC-FISH mapping with clones corresponding to the linkage group 17 of the B. mori reference genome revealed the fusion/translocation event between an ancestral Z chromosome and the chromosome corresponding to B. mori chromosome 17 and supported a previous hypothesis about the role of chromosomal rearrangements in the formation of multiple sex chromosomes in Leptidea butterflies.
Karyotype evolution of the family Araneidae
Pajpach, Filip ; Král, Jiří (advisor) ; Sember, Alexandr (referee)
Orb-weavers (Araneidae) are a diversified spider family comprising more than 3,100 species in more than 170 genera. Together with 13 other families, they con- stitute to superfamily Araneoidea. The presented thesis focuses on karyotype evo- lution of Araneidae, including its comparison with a related family Tetragnathidae. The results obtained from 19 araneid and four tetragnathid species confirm previ- ously postulated hypothesis that the ancestral karyotype of Araneoidea (including Araneidae) consists of 24 acrocentric chromosomes in males, including two acro- centric X chromosomes of system X1X20. However, there is a tendency of 2n decrease in some araneids due to centric fusions. In these cases, centric fusions affected most autosomes (and sometimes gonosomes as well); number of chromosome pairs de- creased from 11 to six. Three independent reduction events were detected in this thesis. Furthermore, pattern of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) was studied in this thesis using fluorescent in situ hybridization, since data on evolution of this marker are scarce in spiders. Striking variability in NORs number was discovered, ranging from one to 13 loci. Remarkably, multiple centric fusions were always ac- companied by considerable increase of NORs number. In araneids and tetragnathids possessing...
Analysis of dosage effect of speciation gene Prdm9 on fertility of mouse hybrids
Flachs, Petr ; Trachtulec, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Stopka, Pavel (referee) ; Král, Jiří (referee)
(eng) The phenomenon of hybrid sterility represents one of the evolutionary mechanisms that enables speciation. Only a few speciation genes have been uncovered. The only one found in mammals is Prdm9 (PR-domain 9). Data in the literature on the involvement of Prdm9 in decreased fertility of various semifertile hybrid males of house mouse subspecies were scarce before the results of this thesis were completed, despite that such males are much more frequent in nature than the fully sterile ones. Utilizing a panel of genetic tools and a battery of phenotyping tests, this thesis shows a central role of Prdm9 in fecundity of hybrids, including many fertility disorders and age dependency. Both increasing and reducing the Prdm9 gene dosage significantly elevated fertility parameters. Surprisingly, even the allele that in one copy causes full hybrid sterility increased F1 hybrid fertility when present in multiple copies. The PRDM9 protein also plays a role in identifying the sites of meiotic recombination. This study also points out the principles of allelic competition in determination of the sites of preferred recombination (hotspots), which suggests a possible link between both previously described Prdm9 roles. This thesis summarizes a set of three logically interconnected publications with the ambition...
Transformation of trace element speciation in disturbed soil profile
Kochergina, Yulia
Distributions of toxic trace elements were studied in soils before and after disturbation of their profiles.Two areas with different vegetation cover were selected: beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) forests at the Načetín site in the Ore Mts. In the past, this area belonged to places with extreme levels of acidic atmospheric deposition. The studied areas are not placed too far from each other and have thus approximately the same climatic conditions, geological background and pollution input. On the other hand, physicochemical properties of soils (pH, CEC, BS, Ctot, Stot) and concentrations of major and trace elements are different. At selected sites in spruce and beech stand, two soil probes to a depth of 40-50 cm were dug in 2010 and samples of individual soil horizont were collected for chemical analyses (approximately 0.5 kg). Four samples from L, H, A and B horizons were taken in the spruce forest area and five samples from L, H, A, B and C horizons were taken in the beech forest. In 2011, the sites were re-sampled and samples were taken from horizons that were disturbed in 2010, paralleled by samples of undisturbed soil horizons from the same probe sites. Trace element concentrations were determined by ICP-MS, the speciation of individual elements in the soils was determined by...
Population genetics and speciation in Stylops (Strepsiptera)
Kodejš, Karel ; Straka, Jakub (advisor) ; Černá, Kateřina (referee)
This thesis is focused to population genetics of selected species of genus Stylops in Europe. Within this genus, five species was analysed by usage of two approaches - microsatellite analysis in Stylops ater and analysis of mitochondrial DNA in all five species. Mitochondrial gene for cytochome c oxidase (1st subunit) was used. For microsatellite analysis was performed bayesian clustering analysis and ABC approach (Aproximate Bayesian Computation). Mitochondrial markers were processed by making haplotype networks and demography analysis by computing Bayesian skyline plots. For Stylops ater, surprisingly low lewel of population subdivision was detected, yet with clearly differentiated population clusters from Scandinavia and baltic coast of Europe, which may imply period of isolation of these populations or relativelly recent population expansion and genetic differentiation due to lower population sizes. Next, hypotesis of possible temporal segregation of subpopulations of Stylops nevinsoni based on different aktivity period of their host species groups, was supported. In other three species, population subdivision was observed to be related either due to host specialisation (Stylops mellitae) or geographic consequences (S.nassonowi, S.spreta). Interesting finding is also detection of population...
Haldne's rule and mechanisms of hybrid female sterility in birds
Baránková, Lucie ; Reifová, Radka (advisor) ; Jansa, Petr (referee)
Hybrid sterility is one of the mechanisms of intrinsic postzygotic reproduction barriers between species and plays a key role in the process of speciation, which is emergence of new species. In accordance with Haldane's rule, hybrid sterility affects preferably the heterogametic sex, which means that in organisms with XY chromosomes, such as mammals or drosophila, male sterility will be affected by sterility of hybrid offspring, while organisms with ZW chromosomes such as birds or butterflies, will be a sterile hybrid female. Symptoms and mechanisms of hybrid sterility are well studied in organisms with heterogametic males, whereas far fewer studies have been performed on organisms with heterogamous females. In my bachelor thesis I will introduce the basic theories explaining the two general rules of speculation, the Haldane rule and the associated great influence of chromosome X or Z on the occurrence of hybrid sterility. Furthermore, in my work I will deal with the manifestations of hybrid sterility of females in birds and in the selected species will introduce the mechanisms that cause this sterility. Key words: Haldane's rule, hybrid sterility, speciation, birds, postzygotic izolation

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