National Repository of Grey Literature 108 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Separation of microplastics from sewage sludge using heavy liquids
Pospíchalová, Eliška ; Innemanová, Petra (advisor) ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (referee)
This bachelor thesis is focused on microplastics in sewage sludge. Microplastics are currently often discussed topic, but their occurrence in sewage sludge isn't still sufficiently researched. The main source of microplastics in sewage sludge is waste water. Microplastics are accumulating in sewage sludge during wastewater treatment and enter terrestrial ecosystems with multiple times higher concentration in comparison to freshwaters as a result of their use in agriculture or in restoration. In the year of 2017 sewage sludge was in Czech Republic further processed by direct land application within agriculture and restoration of 42 %, compostation of 34 %, other uses of 14 %, landfilling of 7 % and incineration of 3 %. The use of sewage sludge in agriculture demonstrates significance of microplastics issue. The tested samples were sampled from five anonymous wastewater treatment plants in Czech Republic. The samples were investigated for applicability of methodology of separation microplastics with oxidation of natural organic matter by Fe2+ + 30 % H2O2 and flotation in saline solution of 5 M NaCl. Following identification of microplastics was carried out in optical microscope with magnification of 40x. For precise optical detection of microplastics the samples were dyed with rose bengal. The...
Analysis of biochar aqueous extracts by separation methods
Tučková, Dominika ; Čáslavský, Josef (referee) ; Mravcová, Ludmila (advisor)
This master's thesis deals with the analysis of biochar extracts by separation methods. All analyzed biochar was produced from waterworks sludge by microwave pyrolysis. The aim of the thesis is the optimization of the sample preparation method and its analysis in a laboratory environment. With the ever-growing world population, the problem of a sustainable economy in both agriculture and waste management is becoming increasingly urgent. This fact has led most countries to consider promoting the so-called Circular Economy. The use of sewage sludge as a feedstock for biochar production is perfectly in line with this strategy. So far, however, the short term and the long term benefits and risks of using biochar have not been sufficiently described. Potentially hazardous organic substances were extracted from the biochar extracts by three techniques: liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, and solid- phase micro-extraction. The obtained samples were analyzed using the GS-MS/TOF method. The individual methods were compared. Several biochar samples from WWTP Brno and WWTP Drahovice were selected and analyzed to verify the suitability of the selected sample analysis method.
Ecotoxicological assessment of biochar from sewage sludge
Kotzurová, Iveta ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
The aim of this diploma thesis is to assess the ecotoxicological effect of biochar produced from sewage sludge. In case of application of biochar to agricultural land, both the soil and aquatic ecosystem may be affected therefore contact and aquatic tests were chosen to assess the ecotoxicological effects. Representatives of soil invertebrates were earthworms Eisenia fetida; Daphnia magna and Artemia salina were chosen from aquatic animals and terrestrial plants were represented by Lactuca sativa, Sinapis alba and Allium cepa. The results of contact tests point out how ecosystem could be negatively affected by biochar dose. Through aqueous extract were shown differences in sensitivity of individual organisms in aquatic tests. Dried sewage sludge was found to be the biggest burden for all tested organisms. The pelletized biochar with the addition of an additive showed the lowest negative effect on tested organisms.
Determination of organic compounds in biochar produced by microwave torrefaction of biomass
Meindl, Jiří ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Mravcová, Ludmila (advisor)
The thesis is focused on a determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in dried pelletized sewage sludge and pelletized biochar. Biochars were made in mild conditions by microwave torrefaction of prepared sewage sludge. There were analyzed and quantified the 34 of standardized PAHs compounds in two series. The first serie, also called “Sada 1”, has been aimed at comparison of extraction methods for the chosen sample of sewage sludge and the sample of biochar. In serie “Sada 1”, there were compared efficiencies of chosen type of solvent or solvent mixture by comparison of yields for 34 standardized analytes in a sample of biochar and a sample of sewage sludge. There were compared also to total yields of PAHs and to number of quantified compounds in analyzed samples. The most reliable extraction method has been used for the next analyses of samples in the second serie called “Sada 2”. In Sada 2, there were compared different samples of the same type (e.g. biochar, sludge). The origin of sewage sludge (small or big sewage treatment plant expressed as PE) and used additives (cellulose, chaff, hay) as modificators for torrefaction process were variables for different type of sample. The results of analysis were identification of the most suitable sewage sludge and additive to be used as modificator for microwave torrefaction process. The main goal of correctly chosen sludge and additive was to minimize production of PAH’s during torrefaction and in samples of biochar.
Using a modified biocharge to capture ammonia from the exhaust air
Kozlíková, Nikola ; Innemanová, Petra (advisor) ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (referee)
In my work I have dealt with the comparison of different types of biochar based solid materials, which could serve as a filling for ammonia capture filters. Three samples of biochar prepared from anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge were used to test the most suitable material at temperatures of 200 ř C, 400 ř C and 600 ř C, 3 samples of biochar prepared from oak wood at temperatures of 260 ř C, 400 ř C and 600 ř C, 2 samples of biochar prepared from a mixture of sewage sludge and wood chips pre-dried in a pilot scale biological drying plant, dried anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge and charcoal. The materials were impregnated with 50% sulfuric acid solution. They were then exposed to ammonia vapors for the time needed to complete the reaction on the surface of the impregnated material. Due to the chemical reaction, ammonium sulfate is produced, which can be used as a fertilizer in agriculture. It is known that the addition of biochar has a positive effect on the soil. In the case of a combination of biochar and ammonium sulphate, this may be an interesting soil additive. It could be an alternative to so-called scrubbers, where ammonia is trapped by bubbling dilute sulfuric acid. Transportation and application of the ammonium sulphate solution thus formed is not economically advantageous. To...
Utilization of phospholipid fatty acids analysis for biodrying study
Stránská, Štěpánka ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (advisor) ; Innemanová, Petra (referee)
The aim of this thesis is the utilization of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis to determine groups of microorganisms present during the biodrying of sewage sludge and their description in relation to the temperature regime of the biodrying. Four experimental cycles A, B, C, D were followed. Cycles A, B and C, D differred from each other in the sewage sludge collected from two waste water treatment plants. The cycles A, B, C and D were each performed in two reactors with different aeration regimes to compare the mesophilic (max. temperature ±50 řC) and thermophilic (max. temperature ±70 řC) regimes of biodrying. PLFA analysis was used to determine the microbial groups. Concentrations of individual PLFA were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). The total PLFA concentration corresponding to total microbial biomass was decreasing during both temperature regimes of cycles B, C, D, while the total PLFA concentration increased towards the end of both temperature regimes of cycle A. The total PLFA concentration reached statistically higher values at the end of the mesophilic regime of cycles B, C and D. The development of fungi to bacteria ratio showed that fungi applied more with the progression of both temperature regimes of cycles A, B and the thermophilic regime of cycle C. Based on...
Physico-Chemical Properties of Sludge-Char.
Moško, Jaroslav
We studied pyrolysis of dry stabilized sewage sludge in a fixed bed reactor at temperatures 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 °C in inert helium atmosphere. The material and energy balances were evaluated and the sludge-chars were analyzed by multiple analytical tools to evaluate their physical and chemical properties.3,4 Additional spectroscopy analyses were performed on sludge-chars to prove some hypotheses based on basic characterization and to study suitability of the techniques for studying such materials.\n\n
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Energetic use of wastewater sludge and microwave pyrolysis products
Šimek, Radim ; Ševčík, Jan (referee) ; Hlavínek, Petr (advisor)
The diploma thesis is focused on the energy utilization of sewage sludge before and after microwave pyrolysis process. The first part of the thesis deals with sludge management, treatment of sludge and its subsequent use or disposal. In the second part of the thesis prepared and modified samples of sludge from WWTP 1 and WWTP 2 are subjected to microwave pyrolysis process. Subsequently, samples are taken for analyzes to determine the total organic carbon, the specific surface area, the heavy metal content and the calorific values. The resulting data was processed in Microsoft Office Excel and presented at work. At the end of the thesis two case studies are then proposed for a specific design of the conceptual location of microwave pyrolysis for the sludge drying process and the drying process of the sewage sludge in the direct combustion boiler room.
Material and Energy Utilization of Stabilized Sewage Sludge by Carbonization Process.
Pohořelý, Michael
The lecture discusses sewage sludge disposal situation in EU. It further focuses on the sludge pyrolysis as an alternative method for the sludge utilization on agricultural soil.
Material and Energy Utilization of Dry Stabilized Sewage Sludge.
Pohořelý, Michael ; Moško, Jaroslav ; Šyc, Michal ; Václavková, Šárka ; Skoblia, S. ; Beňo, Z. ; Svoboda, Karel
The paper describes the need for change in the way of sewage sludge disposal in the Czech Republic. The main reason for the change is the amendment to the current Czech legislation.
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