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Client´s knowlege about the ionizing radiation on the radiology department
PETRÁŇOVÁ, Jana
This bachelor thesis deals with clients' awareness of ionizing radiation at the radiology department. Its aim was to compare the knowledge of clients undergoing examination at the Radiology Department at Strakonice Hospital and Písek Hospital in the area of ionizing radiation. The thesis includes two hypotheses, H1: The knowledge of clients undergoing examination at the Radiology Department at Strakonice Hospital and Písek Hospital in the area of ionizing radiation will be comparable. and H2: The knowledge of clients undergoing examination at the Radiology Department at Strakonice Hospital and Písek Hospital in the area of ionizing radiation will reach 75%. In order to achieve the goal and to verify the hypotheses, a questionnaire was prepared with the help of which a questionnaire survey was carried out. The results were then evaluated using the methods of descriptive and mathematical statistics. The questionnaire contained two unnumbered questions of an informative nature and 16 questions focused on basic knowledge of ionizing radiation. In total, 700 clients from the Radiological Department of the Strakonice Hospital and Písek Hospital participated in the questionnaire survey. However, all questionnaires filled in incorrectly have been deducted from this number. According to the data obtained from the questionnaire survey, the average success rate of the answered questions was only 25%, which can be considered a very below-average result. The clients of the Radiology Department at Písek Hospital were successful in only 24% of questions and the clients from Strakonice Hospital had a success rate of 26%. The set goals have been achieved and both hypotheses were refuted. The main contribution of this bachelor thesis is the acquired picture of the state of clients' awareness of ionizing radiation at the radiology department. The obtained data can be used to improve awareness not only of clients at the radiology department, but also of the general public.
Radiation emergencies with radiological impacts in the Czech Republic
VAZAČ, Daniel
Ionizing radiation is currently being used in many fields (radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, accelerators, flaw detectors, industry). In particular, open radionuclide sources are used in nuclear medicine departments, radiotherapy workplaces and, in industrial applications, it is usually closed radionuclide sources or so-called. Radiation generators, the main component of which is the X-ray. Of course, there is a certain risk of developing accident exposure situations. These situations are preceded by a system of radiation protection and emergency preparedness. Most of these measures can be found in the workplace internal emergency Plan document. The theoretical part of the thesis provides basic information about radioactivity and sources of ionizing radiation. In addition, the radiation protection system, the biological effects of ionizing radiation, the quantities used in radiation protection, the medical application of the IZ and the use of it in the industry are described in the work. The text of the research question is as follows: "which workplaces with sources of ionizing radiation in the Czech Republic have the greatest potential for the occurrence of an accident exposure situation with radiological implications? As a research methodology, the collection of information from professional publications with this theme was chosen. In addition, there were consultations with radiological physics at the Department of Nuclear Medicine and radiotherapy in České Budějovice Hospital, A.S. and with the inspectors of the SÚJB, where the resulting radiological incidents are reported. The work also includes a comparison of the system of radiation protection and emergency preparedness on the different types of workplaces. The practical part describes the types of workplaces that I have compared with each other. In particular, I have focused on the workplace using IZ in industry and medicine, i.e. deftoscopical workplace and Nuclear medicine workplace. The work provides an overview of the potential and occurrence of the radiative emergencies and the circumstances in which they were recorded. The aim of the work was to compare workplaces with sources of ionizing radiation and to sort them according to the possibility of radiation emergencies. A simple analysis found a more likely occurrence of a radiation incident at the workplace of industrial radiography versus a nuclear medicine site.
Radiation safety in the nuclear medicine department
ANTONÍNOVÁ, Eva
The practice in the department of nuclear medicine requires the involvement of radiation protection with care of patients and occupational safety of radiation workers. Nuclear medicine involves the handling of radioactive substances that may cause external or internal irradiation of workers. The amount of the dose depends on the type of radionuclide, the amount of energy, the work performed by the worker within the department. Patients or staff may be exposed to the external or internal irradiation. The topic of this thesis is the analysis of the current state of radiation protection in the department of nuclear medicine according to the new legislation. The part of the work is the evaluation of monitoring of workers and patients. The research results of the average annual effective dose of total body irradiation at radiation workers ranged from 1.35 to 1.73 mSv, monthly ranged from 0.1? 0.65 mSv. The average annual equivalent dose of Hp (0,07) ranged from 1.15 to 117.68 mSw. The lowest monthly Hp (0.07) was 0.07 mSw and the highest one was 19.92 mSw. At SSK-treated patients the doses applied were 4% lower than diagnostic reference level and the dose at DSSL-treated patients was 22% less than DRU. In conclusion, it was found that the values from personal dosimeters were below the limit and in the case of finger dosimeters in two cases the values were above the examination level. The values of other workers were below the monitoring level during the monitored period. The applied doses of radiopharmaceuticals were less in the observed group of patients than the established diagnostic reference level. On the basis of the presented results it can be stated that radiation protection is in the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Znojmo Hospital f.o, secured in accordance with the applicable legislation.
Radiation protection of pediatric radiodiagnostic
VÁLKOVÁ, Alena
In my thesis I deal with ionizing radiation, its origin, its effects and principles. I also deal with radiation protection and its principles, medical exposure and pediatric radiodiagnostics in terms of imaging methods and specifics of radiation protection in paediatrics. And whether all the methods used to reduce radiation exposure in children undergoing ionizing radiation are used. Part of the work is also devoted to the way of communication in this area and awareness, whether it is paid enough attention or this area is neglected in the Czech Republic.
Radiation incidents at selected radiologic workplaces - the analysis of repeated images due to wrong irradiation of pacient.
ZÁKOUTSKÁ, Eliška
The thesis derives from the needs of institutions using sources of ionizing radiation to implement a new legislative regarding nuclear law, effective since 1st January 2017. The thesis is focused on radiological events at radiological institutions of chosen healthcare facilities. The theoretical part makes the reader familiar with the term "radiological event", generally elaborates on the field of diagnostic radiography and radiation protection. The practical part of the thesis deals with evaluation of the most occurring causes and the frequency of radiological events, obtained from the records of medical irradiation, even of wrongly carried out exposures in chosen diagnostic radiography institutions and wrongly sorted radiological events to a relevant category. To fulfil all the goals of the master thesis and to apply the results of the work in practice, also the contents of following document were evaluated - "Evaluation of the means of radiation protection", which every holder of permission to work with ionizing radiation has to submit to the SŮJB yearly, till 30th April, with the data from the previous year. This rule is valid since the new nuclear law was adopted. The results of this thesis served the chosen institution to create such report till 30th April 2019, with a broader extent of the analysis and evaluation than last year. The maximal detail of the report about causes and frequency of radiological events and mapping the real situation at the facilities serves also to the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) to create a Recommendation of the SONS regarding the radiological events. Equally, the thesis was beneficial to the observed facilities, to realise the causes and frequency of radiological events in individual years. It is then up to an individual institution and to the employee supervising the radiation protection, to evaluate the consequences of the found causes, for example to point them out within a yearly training of radiation employees, and to consistently see to the compliance of all preventive measures, which proposal and implementation also belongs to the main tasks of the supervisor.
Analysis of the personal dosimetry results at the chosen workplaces at the Pilsen University Hospital
ŠEFLOVÁ, Daniela
In the diploma thesis with the above name, I have described the subject in general in the introductory part. The diploma thesis describes ionizing radiation, history and present, its types and uses as well as protective aids, which are necessary to use when working with ionizing radiation. I have dealt with the principle of monitoring workers, workplaces and patients, as well as limitations and all the quantities that describe or characterize ionizing radiation. In the next part of my diploma thesis I focused on dosimetry, where I described types of dosimeters. The diploma thesis deals with legislation - laws, decrees and government orders, which give the legal framework of the given issue. In the final part of this thesis I have described the radiodiagnostic activity in the Department of Digital Subtraction Angiography, Gastroenterology and Interventional Cardiology, Pilsen University Hospital, from whose activities I drew background material for this work. The aim of this diploma thesis was to find out the measured values of doses of ionizing radiation in the medical staff and to analyze the radiation protection provision at the Department of Radiology at FN Pilsen. For comparison, the measured values from the personal dosimeters of the medical staff at the mentioned workplaces at FN Pilsen were used. In the theoretical part I used all available sources, foreign and Czech literature. Resources are provided at the end of this paper. The work is focused on quantitative research, which I used in the practical part with statistics. All obtained values from personal dosimeters were obtained from the records of the University Hospital in Pilsen. The data presented in the diploma thesis are measured doses of healthcare personnel for the last seven years. Doses were measured using OSL dosimeters, which are today the most widely used dosimetry in health care. The main aim of the thesis, given that I work as a radiographer, was the examination of the doses of radiographers, doctors and nurses in the Department of Radiology of the Faculty of Nursing in Pilsen, not in the patients who were examined in these departments. In terms of patients, this is a medical exposure, and in this case there is no limit for irradiation.
Radiation emergencies with radiological impacts in the Czech Republic
VAZAČ, Daniel
The use of ionizing radiation is nowadays countless (radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, accelerators, flaw detectors). Open radionuclide emitters are used in nuclear medicine departments, closed radionuclide sources are used on deftoscopic workplaces. Of course, there is a certain risk of developing accident exposure situations. These situations are preceded by a system of radiation protection. Most of these measures can be find in the workplace breakdown plan. The work is divided into chapters. At first, I wrote basic information about radioactivity and ionizing radiation. Further in the work you will find the system of radiation protection, biological effects on the organism, quantities characterizing ionizing radiation (IZ), use of it in medical environment and industrial sources of it. The text of the research question is as follows: "which workplaces with sources of ionising radiation in the Czech Republic have the greatest potential for the occurrence of an accident exposure situation with radiological implications?" As a research methodology, I have used a gathering of professional publications with this theme. In addition, consultations with radiation physics in the Department of Nuclear Medicine in České Budějovice and comparison of radiation protection systems in workplaces were carried out. The practical part describes the workplaces that I have compared with each other. Equipment using IZ in industry and medicine. The deftoscopical workplace and the nuclear medicine workplace were compared. You can also find basic exposure situations that may arise and under what conditions it is possible to occurrence. The aim of the work was to compare workplaces with sources of ionizing radiation (ZIZ) and to arrange them according to the possibility of an accident exposure situation. Using simple analysis, it was found more likely to be possible to create an accident exposure situation at the workplace of industrial radiography in comparsion with a nuclear medicine site.
Radiation exposure in coal miners
NAVRÁTILOVÁ, Denisa
The bachelor thesis focuses on a problematics of radiation load of miners during coal mining. This topic is something that public and miners themselves are not aware of that well. The thesis sets following goals: To chart radiation load of miners during coal mining and the awareness of miners about risks of their job. For the theme were also set following research questions: How big is the rate of radiation exposure of miners during coal mining? Is there considered any radiation protection for miners? At what rate do the miners perceive threats associated with working at coal mine? Which risks the miners encountered during their work experience? How big is the awareness of miners about the threat of radiation load? The theoretical part of this bachelor thesis classifies and sets general characteristics of coal and its most significant coal deposits. Furthermore, the thesis describes natural radionuclides and its content in rocks, radiation load of miners and other risks connected to mining. The last section of theoretical part describes radiation protection, safety and protection of health at work. The practical part was processed based on literature study and qualitative research. For data collection was used semi-structured interview with miners which formerly worked at coal mines and with miners which are still actively working at mines. Furthermore, was conducted an interview with specialist which focuses on ionizing radiation sources in a form of industrial applications. After the analysis, the research questions can be answered as follows. According to studied literature can be concluded that radiation load of miners does exist. However, from conducted interviews emerged that minors do not know much about this problematic and most of them does not even consider radiation load as a threat. The radiation protection in Czech coal mines is regulated by legislation. Based on the valid legislative the average volume activity of radionuclides in the air must be measured in work environments with material containing increased content of natural radionuclides. However, the miners reported that they did not notice any radiation measurement in coal mines. From this statement can be considered that there are no exceeding levels set by legislation at coal mines where questioned miners worked. Other possibility might be that nobody deals with it which is indicated in the interview with radiation application specialist. Some miners realize threats connected to their work and some of them do not. Some miners reported gusts, shaking, presence of methane and coal dust, various injuries and more. Those who did not report specific threats responded that they do not consider these as threats after several years working at mines. Respondents reported a big amount of threats which they encountered at their work. Amongst others were mentioned gusts, accidents, shaking, stone falls, variable temperatures, risk of occupational disease, possibility of methane explosion, presence of noise and vibrations when working with machines.
Radiation protection of pediatric radiodiagnostic
VÁLKOVÁ, Alena
Due to the increase of number of ionizing radiation examinations in the pediatric population, it is important to focus on protecting them, as we assume that children have a long life ahead, and therefore the likelihood of a higher risk of ionizing radiation damage, where repeated use of ionizing radiation can cause irreversible changes of the organism. Therefore, the main objective is to evaluate and investigate the level of radiation protection both of professionals and of the general public.
Optimalization radiation protection on department Radiodiagnostics FN Plzeň
ŠEFLOVÁ, Daniela
In the diploma thesis with the above name, I have described the subject in general in the introductory part. The diploma thesis describes ionizing radiation, history and present, its types and uses as well as protective aids, which are necessary to use when working with ionizing radiation. I have dealt with the principle of monitoring workers, workplaces and patients, as well as limitations and all the quantities that describe or characterize ionizing radiation. In the next part of my diploma thesis I focused on dosimetry, where I described types of dosimeters. The diploma thesis deals with legislation - laws, decrees and government orders, which give the legal framework of the given issue. In the final part of this thesis I have described the radiodiagnostic activity in the Department of Digital Subtraction Angiography, Gastroenterology and Interventional Cardiology, Pilsen University Hospital, from whose activities I drew background material for this work. The aim of this diploma thesis was to find out the measured values of doses of ionizing radiation in the medical staff and to analyze the radiation protection provision at the Department of Radiology at FN Pilsen. For comparison, the measured values from the personal dosimeters of the medical staff at the mentioned workplaces at FN Plzeň were used. In the theoretical part I used all available sources, foreign and Czech literature. Resources are provided at the end of this paper. The work is focused on quantitative research, which I used in the practical part with statistics. All obtained values from personal dosimeters were obtained from the records of the University Hospital in Pilsen. The data presented in the diploma thesis are measured doses of healthcare personnel for the last seven years. Doses were measured using OSL dosimeters, which are today the most widely used dosimetry in health care. The main aim of the thesis, given that I work as a radiological assistant, was the examination of the doses of radiological assistants, doctors and nurses in the Department of Radiology of the Faculty of Nursing in Pilsen, not in the patients who were examined in these departments. In terms of patients, this is a medical exposure, and in this case there is no limit for irradiation.

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