National Repository of Grey Literature 224 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Changes in resting energy expenditure during pregnancy.
Gierová, Lucie ; Hronek, Miloslav (advisor) ; Kovařík, Miroslav (referee)
Background The aim of this work was to determine changes in resting energy expenditure in three periods of pregnancy using indirect calorimetry and assess correlations between the obtained resting energy expenditure values and anthropometric parameters. Methods To determine resting energy expenditure was used indirect calorimetry, which measured oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production, from which this value was calculated. Measurements were performed in seven healthy pregnant women. Measurements took place over three periods. The first examination took place from the 17th to the 27th week of pregnancy, the second from the 28th to the 35th week of pregnancy and the third from the 36th to the 38th week of pregnancy. Results We found that resting energy expenditure values increased with pregnancy length (REE1 = 1670 ± 148 kcal/day; REE2 = 1717 ± 230 kcal/day; REE3 = 1984 ± 209 kcal/day). Also, correlations have been found with age, body weight, fat free mass and fat mass, body surface area, body mass index, and other parameters. Conclusion During pregnancy many changes happen, including metabolic changes. We acknowledged that with increasing duration of pregnancy REE increases, most significantly at the end of pregnancy. This increase is related to a large number of factors, as correlation...
Bioimpedance spectroscopy analysis of body composition during pregnancy.
Nosková, Andrea ; Hronek, Miloslav (advisor) ; Kovařík, Miroslav (referee)
Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a non-invasive and rapid method of determining the amount of body fluids and their distribution within the extracellular and intracellular space based on tissue resistance. The device is able to estimate the mass of fat and muscle tissue due to different amounts of water. The aim of the thesis was to determine the structure of human body in different phases of pregnancy by means of bioimpedance spectroscopy. There are not many research institutes in the Czech Republic dealing with the development of metabolic and physical changes during pregnancy. Seven pregnant women were involved in the clinical observational study. They had physiological pregnancy, good metabolic health, non-smokers and non-drinkers. Except one woman, they were all primiparous. These pregnant women were examined a total of three times by the Body composition monitor (BCM). The measured values showed increase of weight in all examined cases by roughly about 13,3 kg (median). Ratios lean mass tissue/height 2 ratios (LTI) and fat/height 2 ratios (FTI) has reached their maximum at the end of the third trimester. The amount of total fluid (TBM), intracellular fluid (ICW) and extracellular fluid (ECW) increased gradually. The highest peak of all fluids was reached in the third trimester and with...
Vaginal microbiota and its effect in pregnancy
Mašátová, Eva ; Vejsová, Marcela (advisor) ; Konečná, Klára (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Author: Eva Mašátová Trainer: Mgr. Marcela Vejsová, Ph.D. Title: Vaginal microbiota and its effect in pregnancy This work was created to summarize the knowledge of the vaginal microbiota in general and also during the pregnancy. The work deals with the description of individual microorganisms naturally occurring in the vaginal environment and their occurrence in the population. Diagnostic methods and techniques used in gynecology for examination of the vaginal environment are also described. The last part describes the antimicrobial treatment and its changes during the pregnancy. The vaginal microbiota is a diverse ecosystem of every woman that changes during her lifetime with a variety of influences. During the pregnancy, the risk of serious complications, such as premature birth or infections, is significantly increased when the patient is colonized. If the patient is colonized, it is not possible to definitely determine whether it is a pathological condition or not. Representatives of the genus Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Gardnerella, Candida, Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma and others are naturally present in the vaginal environment. The pathogen is securely proven mainly by the density of...
The role of nutritionist in care of pregnant and breastfeeding women
Rezešová, Dagmar ; Krejčí, Hana (advisor) ; Anderlová, Kateřina (referee)
HILLOVÁ, Dagmar: The role of nutritionist in care of pregnant and breastfeeding women. [Thesis]. Charles University in Prague, 1st faculty of medicine; Nutritional specialist. Supervisor: MUDr. Hana Krejčí, Ph.D. Prague, 2019, 66p. The thesis deals with the application of the profession of nutritional therapist/specialist in the care of pregnant and nursing women. In the first half of the theoretical part, there are described individual differences in particular nutritional issues, between the period of pregnancy and the period of breastfeeding. In the second half of the theoretical part, the issue of nutrition health literacy and the characteristics of the professional relationship between the gynecologist and the nutritionist are discussed. The aim of the thesis was to design a real concept of how to include the profession of nutritional therapist/specialist in routine care for pregnant and breastfeeding women so that the current possibilities of specialized outpatient departments are taken into account. The chosen problem was solved by empirical research using the questioning method, where the currently provided nutritional services, deficit areas in the issue of nutrition of pregnant and breastfeeding women were examined and the individual attitude of the respondents in this issue was...
Change of a diet during pregnancy with diagnosis of gestational diabetes and without this diagnosis
Plasová, Jitka ; Anderlová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Krejčí, Hana (referee)
The topic of this bachelor thesis is diet or changing diet of pregnant women monitored for gestational diabetes mellitus (hereinafter referred to as "GDM") compared to a control group of healthy women. The aim of this work was to verify and assess the impact of risk factors on the development of GDM and to compare the development of pregnancy from the point of view of weight of pregnant women and eating habits of pregnant women with and without GDM. To evaluate these goals, I conducted a questionnaire survey and critically assessed the results. My research has confirmed that during pregnancy, the eating habits of pregnant women have changed due to GDM, which has a very likely impact on the different weight gain of both groups (with or without GDM diagnosis). A large percentage of respondents admit that they had a problem with just limiting the sweets. On the other hand, the majority of respondents stated that they had more or less followed the recommended diet. Based on my research I can confirm direct relationship between GDM and some risk factors, especially the most frequent risk factors such as higher age, BMI above 25 and low physical activity. The frequency of GDM diagnosis in pregnant women in these categories was significantly higher. Another unequivocal risk factor was also confirmed,...
Nutrition in pregnancy with type 1 diabetes mellitus
Dolejšová, Lenka ; Flekač, Milan (advisor) ; Polák, Jan (referee)
Pregnancy is a very important period in every woman's life, especially for women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. It brings many changes that affect the level of blood glucose, whose stabilization is the main point of a successful pregnancy. Glycemic stabilization should ideally occur at least three months before conception. Its achievement is mainly due to a properly composed diet, which also has an irreplaceable influence on healthy fetal development. Insufficiently compensated diabetes may be associated with complications for both the baby and the mother. The aim of this bachelor thesis was to summarize available information and find out the knowledge of women with type 1 diabetes mellitus in the topics of nutrition and diabetes compensation during pregnancy. Thereafter to compare the found knowledge of women with the recommendations and depending on the relationship of the respondents to pregnancy, ie whether they were pregnant, do or do not plan pregnancy. The theoretical part of the thesis summarizes the basic facts about relation of diabetes to pregnancy - recommendation for treatment in the period before conception and during pregnancy and related complications for mother and child. It also provides an overview of essential nutrients and micronutrients affecting maternal and fetal health. In...
Weight reduction of breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding mothers
Prokopová, Michaela ; Starnovská, Tamara (advisor) ; Kytnarová, Jitka (referee)
Postpartum weight reduction is a common process during most mother's lives. This thesis focuses on the weight reduction of breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding mothers, nutrition and exercising during the lactation and before delivery. There are two main parts. First of them, theoretical one, describes thoroughly the topics mentioned above, accenting the lactation period. Some of the studies which pursued similar topics in the past are also introduced and their outcomes are described in detail. The first part also focuses, to a lesser extent, on the pregnancy, for it is a natural precursor of the delivery and the subsequent lactation period. The second part is a practical one. There is a results analysis of an anonymous quantitative survey which had been made up for the thesis and presented to 127 respondents via internet. The results were processed into graphs and evaluated. The target of this thesis is to find out, what a successfulness of the postpartum weight reduction is and whether there is an association between breastfeeding and weight changes. The acquired information indicate that breastfeeding might be one of the factors that positively contributes to more effective postpartum weight reduction. Nevertheless the data are not unequivocal enough to establish the breastfeeding beyond all...
Changes in disgust sensitivity associated with hormonal shifts in women - adaptive system or maladaptive response?
Dlouhá, Daniela ; Kaňková, Šárka (advisor) ; Landová, Eva (referee)
Disgust (the feeling of aversion or repulsion) is based on experiencing something distasteful. As an adaptive system, it works as a protection of oneself, especially against infection by pathogens or behavior that could negatively affect one's evolutionary success. Disgust can be observed in women during times of significant hormonal changes, such as pregnancy or the luteal phase of the ovulation cycle. It was observed that these times can also be related to immunological changes, when the woman and (during pregnancy) the fetus require more intensive protection. Hormonal changes can be a sensitive time for the onset of different psychopathological disorders. These disorders are also often associated with heightened levels of disgust. Studies focusing on disgust and the onset of anxiety disorders indicate that the heightened disgust observed in pregnancy could in some cases be just the maladaptive reaction of a developing mental disorder.
Application of physiotherapeutic procedures in conducting physiological childbirth
Šimánková, Marie ; Ježková, Martina (advisor) ; Havlíčková, Michaela (referee)
This bachelor thesis explores ways physiotherapeutic procedures and concepts can be used to effect the proceedings of physiologic childbirth. The beginning of the theoretical part describes anatomical structures relevant to pregnant women, the stages of labor, pain and pain medication. The thesis then deals with ways of influencing changes in the mother's body during pregnancy. With physiotherapeutic interventions we can achieve positive impact on the pregnant woman's body and her physical condition. Through these interventions the expectant mother is better prepared for labour. The topic of the main part of the thesis is the application physiotherapeutic methods and concepts during childbirth. The selected exercises and techniques to be used at each stage of labour can reduce labour pain and shorten the whole delivery process. The last chapter discusses exercise to be done during the puerperium. The practical part of the thesis contains a case report of an expectant mother, her kinesiological analysis in pregnancy and after the labour, description of her labour, a therapeutic plan and a description of her therapy sessions. The practical part also includes a questionnaire research of 51 women after vaginal delivery.

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