National Repository of Grey Literature 92 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Stomata opening and closure regulation in respect to osmotic stress
Hofírková, Miroslava ; Hála, Michal (advisor) ; Lhotáková, Zuzana (referee)
Stomata are structures located in higher plants' epidermis and they regulate mainly CO2 intake and transpiration. The stomata are important for plants' protection against excessive water loss during osmotic stress. This thesis is a literary research summarizing stomatal movements regulation during osmotic stress. The main part of the thesis is focused on stomatal closure with the help of ABA under water deficiency conditions. There are the ABA synthesis, transport and its impact on stomata described in individual chapters. The ABA early signalling pathway and an ionic channel regulation are described in detail on the basis of the published data. The second part of the thesis is about second messengers produced by ABA and their impact on stomatal movement regulation. The special attention is paid to hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide and their contribution to stomatal closure. The last part is about passive (hydraulic) stomatal closure. Keywords: plants, stomata, osmotic stress, ABA, stomatal movements
Cuticle, its formation and importance in resistance of plants to abiotic stress
Litkeiová, Veronika ; Hála, Michal (advisor) ; Tylová, Edita (referee)
Plants are daily exposed to stress, biotic or abiotic. Both of these types can be divided into several subgroups. This work is focused on plant cuticle, its formation and function in respect to abiotic stress resistance. The main factors, mentioned in this work, are drought, heat, UV radiation, excessive salinity or ozone exposure. The individual chapters focus on the composition, biosynthesis and changes in the build-up construction caused by certain types of stressors. A significant part is also devoted to cutin and cuticular waxes, which play an important role in plant protection and whose structure is also affected by abiotic stress. Phytohormones, especially abscisis acid, which had its application here, are also not omitted. In the final phase of the thesis, cuticular mutants are mentioned in connection with abiotic stress types illustrating the role and the importance of the cuticle layer. Key words: plants, cuticle, osmotic stress, abscisic acid, cutin, waxes
The natural phenomena of the Petrovice region and their use in primary science education
This diploma thesis deals with natural science and homeland topics. It includes suggestions for three nature walks with a focus on reviewing and extending the curriculum of the fourth and fifth grades of elementary school. It has a theoretical part related to the curriculum, describes various methods and forms of teaching, suggests walks and includes didactic materials. The thesis aims to nurture pupils' relationship with nature through experiential learning activities, to build their knowledge and to familiarize them with Petrovice and its surroundings.
Plant tomosyns and their role in secretion
Dejová, Lilly ; Hála, Michal (advisor) ; Fendrych, Matyáš (referee)
Tomosyn is a protein belonging to the Lgl family and conserved across the animal and plant kingdom. Tomosyn is composed of N-terminal domain containing WD40 motif and Cterminal domain, where the R-SNARE motif is located at the end of the C-terminal domain. This motif is classified as homologous to R-SNARE motif of synaptobrevine, which is a protein located on the surface of the vesicles and participating in the formation of SNARE complex and subsequent fusion of the vesicles with the plasma membrane. Thus the role of this tomosyn is mainly the regulation of exocytosis. Apart from the animal tomosyn, its yeast homolog Sro7/Sro77 is also examined, however during the evolution it has lost its R-SNARE motif and therefore the plant tomosyns remain unexplored. The aim of this diploma thesis was to characterize both of the plant tomosyns: AtTYN1 and AtTYN2 in Arabidopsis thaliana plant. The experimental thesis included the bioinformatic analysis, the DNA construct creation, a search for interactors by yeast two-hybrid system and monitoring the localization using the confocal microscope. The bioinformatic analysis results, including the creation of phylogenetic tree, not only revealed the conservation of tomosyns across the different classes, but also the division of both tomosyns into different clusters. There was...
The impact of invasive plants on bird communities
Neubergová, Kristýna ; Reif, Jiří (advisor) ; Hanzelka, Jan (referee)
Invasive plants are among the major factors participating on the threat to biodiverzity. Birds are one of the Gross of organism endangered by this factor. However, birds provide a variety of ecological services and are often used as indicators of the state of enviroment in broker scale of landscape. Several researches assessing impal of invasive plants on ecosystem biodiverzity have been done, but none of them targeted bird communities specifically. Objective of this paper will be to anter free question regarding: (i) comparison of impacts of invasive woody plants and plants; (ii) comparison of impacts by type of enviroment in which the inavasive plant expanded (forest, grasses, island, wetlands); (iii) geographical area sof invasion. (i) The results indicie that from the perspective of bird communities, the negative impact of woody plants and plants was basically identical (76% for woody plants, 74% for plants). (ii) Comparison of impacts by type of enviroment in which the invasive plant expanded proved that the most severe negative impal of invasive plants was in islands biomes (100%), wetlands (91%), grassy biomes (87%). The lest severe impal was in forest biomes (63%). The results for island biomes was quite expected, as this biome is the most susceptible to disbalance of ecosystem. (iii)...
Influence of environment on distribution and coexistence of different diseases on a single plant species
Mráčková, Michaela ; Koubek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Koupilová, Klára (referee)
Most plant species host one or multiple pathogens. However, studies are mostly focused on simple pathosystems. These studies deal for example with the virulence of the pathogen, plant resistance or influence of the environment on the pathosystem. The occurrence of more pathogens in one plant species is taken into account only in a few studies. Most of those studies focus on the coinfection of multiple pathogens in one individual host, especially in the agriculture, so there is very little information about coexistence of more pathogens in wild plant population. This paper summarizes the general information about plant and pathogen interaction, focuses on environmental effects and finally focuses on occurrence of multiple pathogens on one plant species. From the studies it is clear, that both, abiotic (light, temperature, humidity, etc.) and biotic conditions (pollinators or pests as vectors etc.) have impact on host- pathogen interaction. During co-occurrence of multiple pathogens in one host plant, various interactions between coinfecting pathogens can occur (competition, cooperation, etc.). Resistance of plant to one pathogen can be affected by presence of other pathogens and stress factors. Finally, coinfection may also affect virulence of individual pathogens. Key words: plants, pathogens,...
Biological protection and plants induced resistance to diseases and pests: 8th seminar 25. 11. 2010
Věchet, Lubomír
Conference proceedings on biological plant protection. Contributions were presented on the influence of biological seed dressing for wheat on the composition of soil micromycetes, efficacy of botanical insecticides based on seed oil from Pongania glabra Vent. against Plutella xylostella L. larvae, supressive effect of selected plant species on the germination and foliar necrosis, induced resistence of wheat to powdery mildew.
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The Field Trip on the Banks of the River Vrchlice Focused on Woody Plants with the Pupils of Secondary School
Nováková, Jana ; Skýbová, Jana (advisor) ; Hanel, Lubomír (referee)
I chose the topic for my diploma thesis " The Excursion for the Elementary School Pupils along the Riverside of the Vrchlice River Aiming at Woody Plants". I took that topic intentionally just for several reasons. I wanted to bring a scenic valley of the Vrchlice river to pupilsˇ attention, to make the identification of woody plants more attractive in the natural scientific excursion, and to consolidate pupils' relation to nature and neighbouring environment. The first theoretical part deals with the general description of this valley and at the same time with the characteristic of animals and plants. Selected sorts of woody plants are described in the most detailed way as they became initial ones for working out worksheets and for the natural scientific excursion. The next part of the diploma thesis concerns inquiry research the goal of which was to find out the interest of teachers from nearby basic schools in worksheets dealing with the woody plants issues of the river Vrchlice. Worksheets dealing with selected wooden plants were elaborated on the basis of the research assessment. Those worksheets were verifield in the follow-up excursion. The closing part evaluates whether all the set targets were accomplished. Keywords Woody plants, educational excursion, worksheets, plants, pupils
Functions of RAB GTPases and SNARE proteins in post-Golgi trafficking pathways in response to abiotic stress in plants
Moulík, Michal ; Hála, Michal (advisor) ; Mašková, Petra (referee)
Plants as sessile organisms are strongly affected by abiotic and biotic stress factors. Thus, they have developed an array of morfological, biochemical and physiological adaptations to reduce the negative effects of these factors. The membrane trafficking, among others, plays very important role in adaptation to abiotic stress. In my bachelor thesis I have focused on two important protein families involved in this trafficking, namely on RAB GTPases and SNARE proteins. In the first part, the phenomenon of stress is characterized and the strategies how plants cope with the effect of stressors are described, especially the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy. Following chapter deals with an introduction to the membrane trafficking in plants. In the rest of the thesis, I characterize RAB GTPases and SNARE proteins and provide contemporary insight in the mechanism of their function. The aim of the key parts of these chapters is to summarize current knowledge of RAB GTPases' and SNARE proteins' functions in post-Golgi trafficking pathways during response to abiotic stressors or secondary oxidative stress. Key words: plants, abiotic stress, membrane trafficking, secretion, endocytosis, vacuole, RAB GTPases, SNARE proteins

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