National Repository of Grey Literature 176 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Neuroinflammation and mechanisms of neuropathic pain development
Kalynovska, Nataliia ; Paleček, Jiří (advisor) ; Krůšek, Jan (referee) ; Hejnová, Lucie (referee)
Neuropathic pain represents a possible outcome of neural tissue injury; it occurs also as a concomitant symptom of different diseases or as a side effect of several treatments. Up to date, it constitutes a great challenge in clinical practice, as currently available treatments are still unsatisfactory. Mechanism-based treatment approaches are promising strategy in neuropathic pain management. However, there is still a lack of information about the exact mechanisms involved in the development and/or maintenance of neuropathic pain. This Doctoral Thesis is aimed to explore the mechanisms underlying the development of neuropathic pain states in different models. The principal part of this work is focused on the study of anti-inflammatory effect of Angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) blocker, losartan, in two different models of peripheral neuropathy: paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN) and spinal nerve ligation (SNL). The work also aimed to access the involvement of spinal transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels in the process of neuronal activation induced by paclitaxel (PAC) and chemokine CCL2 treatment. In order to fulfil the abovementioned aims, behavioral, immunohistochemical and molecular methods were used. For every model of peripheral neuropathy, the...
Mechanisms of Activation and Modulation of Ion Channels Specific for Nociceptive Neurones
Touška, Filip ; Vlachová, Viktorie (advisor) ; Paleček, Jiří (referee) ; Tureček, Rostislav (referee)
Human body detects potentially damaging stimuli by specialized sensory nerve endings in the skin, the nociceptors. Their membranes are equipped with ion channels, molecular sensors, coding the outside stimuli into the trains of action potentials and conducting them to the higher brain centers. The most prominent group of transduction ion channels is the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family followed by ion channels responsible for generation and conduction of action potentials from the periphery to the brain, the voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Understanding the mechanisms how particular stimulus is encoded and processed is of particular importance to find therapeutics for various types of pain conditions. We characterized the properties of VGSC subtypes NaV1.9 and NaV1.8 at high temperatures. We showed that NaV1.9 undergo large increase in current with increasing temperatures and significantly contribute to the action potential generation in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are sodium channels activator toxins causing ciguatera fish poisoning, a disease manifested by sensory and neurological disturbances. We elucidated the mechanism of CTX- induced cold allodynia, a pathological phenomenon where normally innocuous cool temperatures are perceived as pain. We...
The role of nociceptive synaptic transmission modulation at the spinal cord level in different pain states
Adámek, Pavel
Pain is a common symptom of many clinical syndromes and diseases. In particular, the treatment of neuropathic pain represents a serious public health issue because currently available analgesia is ineffective in many cases or it has adverse effects. Treatment of pain-related suffering requires knowledge of how pain signals are initially generated and subsequently transmitted by the nervous system. A nociceptive system plays a key role in this process of encoding and transmission of pain signals. Modulation of the nociceptive synaptic transmission in the spinal cord dorsal horn represents an important mechanism in the development and maintenance of different pathological pain states. This doctoral thesis has aimed to investigate and clarify some of the mechanisms involved in the modulation of the spinal nociceptive processing in different pain states. The main attention was paid to study the following issues: (I.) Which is the role of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 1 channels (TRPV1), Toll-Like Receptors 4 (TLR4), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in the development of neuropathic pain induced by paclitaxel (PAC) chemotherapy in acute in vitro, and subchronic in vivo murine model of PAC-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN)? (II.) How is affected spinal inhibitory synaptic control...
Case Study of Physiotherapy Treatment of a Patient with pain in the medial part of the left calf
Mazzola, Elisabetta ; Maršáková, Kateřina (advisor) ; Kozderková, Romana (referee)
"Case Study of Physiotherapy Treatment of a Patient with Pain in the Medial Part of the Left Calf" The following Bachelor thesis took place at the outpatient rehabilitation department of the Central Military Hospital, in Prague, for a period of two weeks. The aim of this work is, firstly, to present a theoretical overview about the area of the body subject to the patient's complain, exploring the leg and the triceps surae from an anatomical and kinesiological perspective. Then the muscular pathological finding that is the most probable cause of the patient's pain is investigated. The second part of the thesis concerns the practical work performed in hospital and wants to show if and how the initial physical condition displayed by the patient can change through the application of appropriate physiotherapeutic procedures, which are based on the results of examinations and on the investigation of the possible causes of the triceps surae pain. The 30-year old patient showed pain to the touch in a restricted area of the medial aspect of the left triceps surae that was also tense and swollen. It corresponded to the location of a myofascial trigger point in the gastrocnemius. Not only the left gastrocnemius was problematic but many other muscles of the lower extremities and the trunk showed hypertonicity,...
Alternative methods in managing postoperative pain in living donor renal transplantant recipients
Nová, Michaela ; Hocková, Jana (advisor) ; Dynáková, Šárka (referee)
The main criteria for managing good postoperative care include the effective and appropriate choice of pain therapy. Experiencing pain is a purely individual feeling for each of us, so it is very important to have adequate and sufficient analgesia during this period. Modern management of post-operative pain therapy uses preparations of various pharmacological groups that potentiate and thereby more effectively reduce pain. By this mechanism, we can reduce the total dose of analgesics given, and more particularly, reduce the dose of opioids that have a higher risk of side effects. In this project i want to show how the analgesic catheter could be useful as alternative possibility in algorithm therapy of postoperative pain. Analgesic catheter enable continual local anesthetics administration, exactly 0,5% bupivacaine, which is operating in surgical wound. Main goal of the study is to find out and verify if analgesic catheter is method which provides continual analgesia strong enough to results in lower use of opioids. The research data will be determined by quantitative research using a questionnaire survey. Non standardized self-production questionnaire. will be given in a paper form to non-medical healthcare staff, who perform nursing activities The spectrum of patients is very specific; they are...
Life Satisfaction And Pain
Waldmannová, Alice ; Raudenská, Jaroslava (advisor) ; Jirkovský, Daniel (referee)
This bachelor thesis deals with the influence of pain on life satisfaction. It is divided into two parts - part theoretical and part empirical. In the first part I define basic concepts such as pain, painful behavior, anxiety, fear, life satisfaction, concept of life satisfaction, happiness. What are the differences in approach and quality of life in patients with chronic long-term illness, compared to volunteers without pain. I tried to describe the differences between anxiety and fear that are often confused with each other. At the end of the theoretical part are described methods of evaluation of fear of pain. In the empirical part is a quantitative research, which focuses on the detection of the intensity of the pain of fear in patients with chronic pain depending on gender, age and their current pain. Differences in the use of strategies to deal with fears between men and women are also being explored. Three questionnaire methods were selected - the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (DOS), the Fear of Pain Questionnaire (FPQ-III) in the Czech version, The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). To measure pain intensity, the VAS numerical scale was used. Questionnaire survey was attended by respondents of Motol University hospital and healthy controls.
Nursing care of patient with chronic pain from leg ulcer
Tomanová, Jana ; Kulířová, Veronika (advisor) ; Chvojková, Kateřina (referee)
The bachelor thesis deals with nursing care for patient with chronic leg ulcers. The number of patients with chronic leg ulcers is rising and the therapy is long term and costly. Everything is also complicated by pain. I found information for theoretical part in literature and professional magazines in National Medical Library. Also I gained information from internet resources. Another information was obtained from recommendation concerning about wound healing such as Czech Wound Treatment Society, Slovakian Wound Treatment Society, EWMA European Society and Czech Dermatological Society. In practical part I processed a case study and described a nursing process of patient with chronic leg ulcers and chronical pain. The practical part including health assessment according to Marjory Gorden's functional model of health. I obtained all information from interview with a patient, from available medical documentation and self-observation during treatment. Methods: Casuistry of patient with chronic leg ulcers and chronical pain, with health assessment according to Marjory Gorden's functional model of health. Aim of the thesis: Record the specifics of this nursing care, especially pain. Find out if proper nursing care can reduce pain of this disease. Results: Compliance proper nursing procedures, reach...
Modulation of synaptic transmission in the development of painful states
Slepička, Jakub ; Paleček, Jiří (advisor) ; Hejnová, Lucie (referee)
My thesis introduces the topic of nociceptive signalisation and processes involved in the formation and spreading of neuropathic pain. This study focuses on the mechanisms of nociceptive synaptic transmission mechanisms in the level of spinal dorsal horn and its modulation by paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic drug inducing neuropathic changes. The attention is put especially on the possibility of glial activity participation in paclitaxel side effects. This idea stems from the existing hypothesis of the functional connection between TLR4 and TRPV1 receptor activity. TRPV1 is well known for its participation in chemical, thermal and nociceptive sensory transmission. Minocycline antibiotic is considered as an inhibitor of microglial activation therefore it was used for blocking neuroinflammation. The experimental part is comparing an impact of substances applied to the model of tachyphylaxis used for monitoring of nociceptive transmission changes according to decreasing activity of TRPV1 receptors. Electrophysiological recording of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents from neurons in the Rexed laminae I. and II. of spinal dorsal horn was used. The results of my measurements show that minocycline is able to suppress acute effects of paclitaxel application in vitro if the spinal slice is incubated...
The role of nociceptive synaptic transmission modulation at the spinal cord level in different pain states
Adámek, Pavel ; Paleček, Jiří (advisor) ; Vaculín, Šimon (referee) ; Vlachová, Viktorie (referee)
Pain is a common symptom of many clinical syndromes and diseases. In particular, the treatment of neuropathic pain represents a serious public health issue because currently available analgesia is ineffective in many cases or it has adverse effects. Treatment of pain-related suffering requires knowledge of how pain signals are initially generated and subsequently transmitted by the nervous system. A nociceptive system plays a key role in this process of encoding and transmission of pain signals. Modulation of the nociceptive synaptic transmission in the spinal cord dorsal horn represents an important mechanism in the development and maintenance of different pathological pain states. This doctoral thesis has aimed to investigate and clarify some of the mechanisms involved in the modulation of the spinal nociceptive processing in different pain states. The main attention was paid to study the following issues: (I.) Which is the role of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 1 channels (TRPV1), Toll-Like Receptors 4 (TLR4), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in the development of neuropathic pain induced by paclitaxel (PAC) chemotherapy in acute in vitro, and subchronic in vivo murine model of PAC-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN)? (II.) How is affected spinal inhibitory synaptic control...
The use of evalution and measurement tools for assessment of pain in surgery
DVOŘÁKOVÁ, Vendula
Pain can be a warning sign, but in surgery it is associated mainly with medical procedures. The aim of the research survey was to map out the pain rating scales that are used in practice in surgical patients, to determine the opinion of surgical nurses on these scales and patient experience. Furthermore, the paperwas aimed at the creation of a recommended procedure for evaluation of pain in surgical patients. In the empirical part of the thesis, quantitative and qualitative research was used. In the quantitative research, two questionnaires were created - for nurses (a non-standardized questionnaire) and for surgical patients (a combination of a non-standardized and standardized questionnaire). The focus group method with surgical patients and nurses was used as a qualitative method. The research survey shows that the most commonly used scale in practice is the visual analogue scale and verbal evaluation. Although these methods are widely used, our results suggest that they are not entirely sufficient. Respondents from the groups of nurses and patients wanted to add more accurate verbal description to the evaluation and increase the frequency of pain evaluation by a doctor and nurse. The most frequent symptoms of pain from the perspective of patients included: limited mobility and self-sufficiency, emotional lability, and verbal manifestations. And from the perspective of nurses: limited mobility, non-cooperation, limited self-sufficiency and verbal manifestations. Among the methods that are used most often by patientsto relieve painare medicinesprescribed by the doctor, relief positions, sleep and rest. More than 90% of patients are satisfied with the cooperation with the nurse and the doctor in the evaluation and treatment of pain. Based on the data analysis, a procedure for assessing pain in surgical patients has been proposed. Its clarity and usability were verified using the focus group method with surgical nurses and patients. Both the nurses and the patients assessed the recommended procedure quite positively. Possible pitfalls were perceived in the necessity of sufficient nurse-patient cooperation and enough time to implement the proposed assessment. The research survey was carried out in the territory of the South Bohemian region and is processed as part of thesolution of the GAJU team grant project - Use of Measuring Instruments in Nursing Practice (059/2018/S).

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