National Repository of Grey Literature 14 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Oxidative phosphorylation system in rare types of mitochondrial diseases
Zdobinský, Tomáš ; Tesařová, Markéta (advisor) ; Pecinová, Alena (referee)
In their bioenergetic metabolism mammalian cells are primarily dependent on ATP production through the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). Defects of OXPHOS function can lead to occurrence of mitochondrial disorders with different severity and diverse symptoms. Most severely affected are usually tissues with high energy demand which are also difficult to access for biochemical and other examinations. The aim of this thesis was mainly to characterize the effects of mutations in seven different genes (OPA1, DARS2, NDUFS8, NR2F1, HTRA2, MGME1, POLG) on bioenergetic metabolism and mitochondrial network structure of skin fibroblasts from eight different patients diagnosed with mitochondrial disorders. The main method used was measurement of oxygen uptake by permeabilized cells using highly sensitive polarography. Significant changes in fibroblast respiration of four patients were found. Changes in mitochondrial network morphology were found in two of those and two other patient cell lines compared to controls using fluorescent microscopy and different cultivating conditions. Skin fibroblasts are relatively easy to obtain and offer a number of benefits for both diagnostic and study purposes. The results of this work illustrate the possibilities of their use for validation of potential causal...
Functional characterization of LACE1 APTase and mitochondrial AAA proteases YME1L and AFG3L2 in mitochondrial protein homeostasis.
Tesařová, Jana ; Stibůrek, Lukáš (advisor) ; Kalous, Martin (referee) ; Pecina, Petr (referee)
Mitochondrial protein homeostasis is crucial for cellular function and integrity. It is ensured by many specific mitochondrial proteases with possible chaperone functions located across the various mitochondrial subcompartments. In the first part, we have focused on characterization of functional overlap and cooperativity of proteolytic subunits AFG3L2 and YME1L of the mitochondrial inner membrane complexes m- and i-AAA in HEK293 cells. The double AFG3L2/YME1L knockdown cells showed severe alteration in OPA1 protein processing, marked elevation in OMA1 protease and severe reduction in SPG7. Our results reveal cooperative and partly redundant involvement of AFG3L2 and YME1L in the maintenance of mitochondrial protein homeostasis and further emphasize their importance for mitochondrial and cellular function and integrity. The aim of the second part was to characterize the cellular function of LACE1 (lactation elevated 1) in mitochondrial protein homeostasis. LACE1 protein is a human homologue of yeast Afg1 (ATPase family gene 1) ATPase. We show that LACE1 is a mitochondrial integral membrane protein that exists as a part of three complexes of approximately 140, 400 and 500 kDa. We demonstrate that LACE1 mediates degradation of nuclear-encoded complex IV subunits COX4, COX5A and COX6A. Using affinity...
Structural composition and functional properties of mitochondrial FoF1 ATP synthase on models of specific subunits deficiencies
Efimova, Iuliia ; Mráček, Tomáš (advisor) ; Kalous, Martin (referee)
Mitochondrial ATP synthase represents the final complex of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Its primary role is to utilize mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) generated by respiratory chain complexes to produce energy in the form of ATP. Mammalian ATP synthase comprises of 17 different subunits organized into membranous Fo and matrix-oriented F1 domains. Defects of complex V and their manifestation have been studied on mitochondrial, cellular, tissue and organism levels using different models, including human cell lines and cell lines derived from patient tissues. In many cases mitochondrial diseases display threshold behaviour, when genetic defect is phenotypically manifested only bellow certain threshold in particular enzyme complex activity and/or content. This work was aimed at elucidation of functional consequences of ATP synthase deficiency in HEK293 cell lines with suppressed gene expression of γ, δ or ε subunits of ATP synthase central stalk. We have analysed range of clones with respective subunits knockdown and found varying decrease in assembled ATP synthase content, which was mirrored by the decrease in individual ATP synthase subunits. The only exception was subunit Fo-c, whose levels remained unchanged or even increased. ATP...
Deletions in human mitochondrial DNA and causes of their formation
Zdobinský, Tomáš ; Tesařová, Markéta (advisor) ; Manakov, Dmitry (referee)
Mitochondria are organelles of eukaryotic cells that primarily provide energy metabolism, but also participate in metabolic processes such as biosynthesis of amino acids, heme groups, Fe-S clusters etc. Mitochondrial disorders represent heterogeneous group of diseases which can occur in both child and adult life. They affect various tissues and organs in different ways, most often manifesting themselves as disorders of nervous system, skeletal muscle, liver, kidneys or endocrine system. Mitochondrial DNA deletions contribute to pathogenesis of many of those diseases and they are a symptom of several defined syndromes. They most likely arise as a result of replication stalling resulting in a double strand break of DNA. This can be caused primarily by pathogenic changes in replication apparatus and nucleotide metabolism proteins. The aim of this work is to summarize the knowledge about mitochondria and structure and replication of their genome, but also to create a summary of the most important proteins whose mutation leads to mitochondrial diseases accompanied by deletions in mtDNA and to outline the mechanism by which they arise.
Oxidative phosphorylation addiciton as a new approach to the therapy of neoplastic diseases
Růžičková, Anna ; Neužil, Jiří (advisor) ; Merta, Ladislav (referee)
Neoplastic diseases belong at present time among the most frequent causes of premature death in industrialized countries. Discovery of novel approaches to their therapy is highly warranted. Recent results point to the requirement of mitochondrial respiration for tumor progression. This is linked primarily to recent discovery of horizontal transfer of mitochondrial transfer from the host to cancer cells with damaged mitochondrial DNA. This is a needed for the recovery of mitochondrial respiration, a prerequisite for tumor progression. It has appeared that the rate of respiration necessary for tumor progression differs in individual types of tumors. This hypothesis, which is refer to as 'oxidative phosphorylation addiction', however, needs to be verified. It could serve as the basis for proposing of novel therapic strategy for neoplastic diseases, using compounds that directly affect mitochondrial respiratory complexes. Key words: mitochondria, oxidative phosphorylation, horizontal transfer of mitochondrial DNA, neoplastic pathologies, mitochondrially targeted anti-cancer agents
Structural and Functional Interactions of Mitochondrial ADP-Phosphorylating Apparatus
Nůsková, Hana ; Houštěk, Josef (advisor) ; Kolarov, Jordan (referee) ; Kuda, Ondřej (referee) ; Panicucci Zíková, Alena (referee)
The complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system in the inner mitochondrial membrane are organised into structural and functional super-assemblies, so-called supercomplexes. This type of organisation enables substrate channelling and hence improves the overall OXPHOS efficiency. ATP synthase associates into dimers and higher oligomers. Within the supercomplex of ATP synthasome, it interacts with ADP/ATP translocase (ANT), which exchanges synthesised ATP for cytosolic ADP, and inorganic phosphate carrier (PiC), which imports phosphate into the mitochondrial matrix. The existence of this supercomplex is generally accepted. Experimental evidence is however still lacking. In this thesis, structural interactions between ATP synthase, ANT and PiC were studied in detail. In addition, the interdependence of their expression was examined either under physiological conditions in rat tissues or using model cell lines with ATP synthase deficiencies of different origin. Specifically, they included mutations in the nuclear genes ATP5E and TMEM70 that code for subunit ε and the ancillary factor of ATP synthase biogenesis TMEM70, respectively, and a microdeletion at the interface of genes MT-ATP6 and MT-COX3 that impairs the mitochondrial translation of both subunit a of ATP synthase and subunit Cox3...
Study of leukemic cells' metabolism in association with response to the therapy
Šimčíková, Markéta ; Starková, Júlia (advisor) ; Čuřík, Nikola (referee)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignant dise- ase in children. Despite great advancements in treatment of this disease, around 15-20 % of patients suffer a relapse. One of the possible reasons for relapse is developed resistance to cytostatic drugs. L-asparaginase is an im- portant chemotherapy component for childhood ALL and resistance to this drug often complicates treatment. To date, causes of developing resistance have not been sufficiently described. This thesis is a part of a greater research project focusing on mechanisms of L-asparaginase's activity and reasons for developing resistance to this chemotherapeutic agent. Differential metabolic requirements of cancerous cells have been described as early as 1924 by O. H. Warburg and they have been subject to scientific inquiry since. This study aimed to describe the relationship between basal metabolic determinants of leukemia cells and their sensitivity to L-asparaginase. For this reason, two metabolic pathways, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylati- on, were studied in detail using a Seahorse Bioanalyzer. Further, expression of specific genes involved in glycolysis was detected. Content of mitochon- drial reticulum in cells, expression of the asparagine synthetase gene, and cell size were also studied. Experiments were...
Effects of antidepressants and depressive disorders on mitochondrial functions
Hroudová, Jana ; Fišar, Zdeněk (advisor)
Mood disorders are serious diseases. Nevertheless, their pathophysiology is not sufficiently clarified. Biological markers that would facilitate the diagnosis or successful prediction of pharmacotherapy are still being sought. The aim of the study was to find out whether mitochondrial functions are affected by antidepressants, mood stabilizers and depression. Our research is based on recent hypotheses of mood disorders, the advanced monoamine hypothesis, the neurotrophic hypothesis, and the mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis. We assume that impaired function of mitochondria leads to neuronal damage and can be related to the origin of mood disorders. Effects of antidepressants and mood stabilizers on mitochondrial functions can be related to their therapeutic or side effects. In vitro effects of pharmacologically different antidepressants and mood stabilizers on the activities of mitochondrial enzymes were measured in mitochondria isolated from pig brains (in vitro model). Activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO) isoforms was determined radiochemically, activities of other mitochondrial enzymes were measured spectrophotometrically. Overall activity of the system of oxidative phosphorylation was measured electrochemically using high- resolution respirometry. Methods were modified to measure the same...
Impact of isolate deficiency of F1FO-ATP syntthase on other complexes of oxidative phosphorylation in skin fibroblasts depending on cullture conditions
Kedrová, Kateřina ; Stiborová, Marie (advisor) ; Poljaková, Jitka (referee)
Isolated deficiency of F1FO-ATPsynthase is a soubgroup of mitochondrial diseases caused by mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial-encoded structural subunits, or nuclear-encoded assembly factors of F1FO-ATPsynthase. The most often mutations are found in a MTATP6 gene localized in the mitochondrial DNA and a TMEM70 gene, localized in the nuclear DNA. A MTATP6 gene encodes subunit a of F1FO-ATPsynthase and its mutation usually leads to reduced phosphorylation activity of F1FO-ATPsynthase. A TMEM70 gene encodes a 21 kDa mitochondrial protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane of not completely explained function and its mutation results in the decrease in a content of fully assembled F1FO- ATPsynthase. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the impact of isolated F1FO- ATPsynthase deficiency on the oxidative phosphorylation system (complex I-IV), other selected mitochondrial proteins, and mitochondrial network in two cell lines of primary human skin fibroblasts with an isolated deficiency of F1FO-ATPsynthase (mutation m.8851T>C in MTATP6 and mutation c.317-2A>G in TMEM70) during the first days of their cultivation in media containing galactose or glucose as a carbohydrate source with a presence or absence of L-glutamine. The control cell line was found to have higher amounts of respiratory chain...
Expression of selected defects of oxidative phosphorylation system in cultivated fibroblasts
Marková, Michaela ; Hansíková, Hana (advisor) ; Kalous, Martin (referee)
AAbbssttrraacctt:: The mammalian organism is entirely dependent on ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) on the inner mitochondrial membrane. OXPHOS is composed of respiratory chain complexes I-IV, ATP synthase and also include two electron transporters cytochrome c and coenzyme Q. Disorders of mitochondrial energy metabolism caused by OXPHOS defects are characterized by extreme heterogeneity of clinical symptoms, variability of tissues affected and the severity of the defect at the level of individual tissues. The mitochondrial disorders are not always clearly expressed at the level of available tissue or most easily available cultured fibroblasts and/or currently available methods are not capable to detect the defects on the fibroblasts level. The aim of this master thesis was to identify by biochemical methods, especially by high sensitive polarography, OXPHOS disorders in cultured fibroblasts. Cell lines from 10 patients with isolated (SURF21, SCO1 ND1, ND5) or combined defects of OXPHOS complexes whose biochemical defect was confirmed in muscle tissue as well as 14 patients with non- mitochondrial diseases (8 patients with Huntington disease, 6 patients with disorder of sulphur amino acids metabolism) were analysed. Furthermore impact of various cultivation conditions on OXPHOS...

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