National Repository of Grey Literature 839 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Oncolytic viruses in cancer immunotherapy
Zupko, Jakub ; Bartůňková, Jiřina (advisor) ; Janovec, Václav (referee)
Oncolytic virotherapy is a field dedicated to exploiting viruses in the battle against cancer, where their specific cytolytic effects are sorely needed. This work focuses on the mechanisms and limitations of oncolytic virotherapy, on the recent advances in the field and on the potential oncolytic viruses hold for the future.
Respite Centre of Krtek (Mole) Children's Oncology Foundation
Čánský, Pavel ; Mašek, Radomír (referee) ; Marek, Jiří (advisor)
The diploma thesis deals with the design of the building of the Center for Children's Oncology Endowment Fund Krtek (Mole) at the crossing of Milady Horákové and Francouzské streets in Brno. Emphasis is placed on a detailed solution of operational, functional and capacity needs, which are individual requirements of a particular endowment fund.
The issue of skin care in connection with radiotherapy.
This bachelor thesis deals with one of the most frequent complications of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Despite all the progress and development of this treatment, unfortunately, the radiation influences not only the tumour itself but has an effect on surrounding healthy tissue as well. Post-radiational reaction on skin arises. The aim of this thesis is to discover particularities of nursing care of patients with post-radiational changes on skin, to discover practical experience of medical personnel with products for prevention and treatment of post-radiational changes on skin and discover the role of nurses in the issues of skin treatment of patients undergoing the radiotherapy. The thesis is divided in theoretical part and empirical part. The theoretical part deals with types of tumours, diagnostics and treatment, undesirable effects of ionizing radiation and nursing care of patients undergoing the radiotherapy. A qualitative research inquiry was accomplished by means of semi structured interviews in the empirical part. The research sample was intentionally chosen and the criterion for the choice was a nurse working at an oncological inpatient department or at a radiotherapeutic outpatient department. The research group was created by 6 nurses from different medical facilities in the Czech Republic. Four categories and seven subcategories were created while assessing the interviews. The results of the research inquiry show that the most recommended product for preventive skin treatment is a Cavilon spray. It is important to use water-based products instead of oil-based ones. Under the principles of skin treatment, it is most frequently recommended to wear cotton and loose-fitting clothes without laces and shave only with electric razor not with razor blades. Furthermore, the careful hygiene with cold water without using a soap or scented soap is also important. It is important for every medical staff member to approach individually to every patient's needs. One of the main roles of a nurse is the right patient instruction, right evaluation of skin damage and skin reaction treatment. We recommend to lay stress on the prevention in the form of instruction of the patient already before the start of the radioactive treatment.
Influence of fetal microchimerism on breast carcinoma in mothers
Šůchová, Anna-Marie ; Hromadníková, Ilona (advisor) ; Balounová, Jana (referee)
Fetal microchimerism is a condition where fetal cells are present in the body of the mother, they are transmitted during pregnancy and may persist for several decades after parturition. Their presence affects the immune system of the mother, which is investigated in both autoimmune and tumor diseases. This work, as a literature review, summarizes the current knowledge of the effect of fetal microchimerism on breast carcinomas in mothers, which is one of the most common cancer in women worldwide. It is based on studies that examined the presence of fetal cells in peripheral blood and neoplastic maternal tissues. While the correlation between the presence of fetal microchimerism in peripheral blood and breast cancer suggests a possible protective role, the data on the investigation of the same correlation in neoplastic tissue are not so unambiguous. Some of them suggest a protective role, others have a negative role. Key words - fetal microchimerism, breast carcinoma, pathogenesis, oncology, tumor
Specification of nutrition a patients with oncological disaeses of blood.
A common problem with oncological diseases is a lack of nutrition or refusal to take food caused by changes in taste or other complications associated with treatment. This is also true with oncological blood diseases. Because of the influence of their treatment, the people with these diseases frequently lose their appetite and suffer from nausea, often strong enough to induce vomiting, as well as diarrhea or complete change of taste. Immediately after the treatment they can feel a so called "metallic" taste in the mouth. This thesis focuses on analyzing whether the intake is sufficient in such cases. For qualitative research, we used directive interview and collected anthropometric data and sample menus from respondents with oncological blood diseases, which are subsequently calculated Nutriservis. The interview focused primarily on nutrition, but there were also some questions about treatment, as well as family and personal medical history. Comparing the documented menus from the respondents with the calculated values of the recommended intake for each person had a predictable result. All respondents had a lower intake of energy than was calculated for them Protein was taken by 77.7% people (i.e., 7 out of 9 people), which is also a small amount, while fat was taken by 44.4% (4 of 9 people), which is larger amount than recommended. None of the respondents achieved the recommended amount of carbohydrates. We can therefore say that, despite the efforts of doctors and nutritional therapists, people with oncological blood diseases still suffer from poor nutrition. This situation can only be prevented by giving the people with these diseases enough information about the frequent complications that occur and the risks associated with them. In addition, it is necessary to monitor these people and, in cases of major weight loss, inform their doctor, who will consider the administration of artificial nutrition.
Modeling and Signal Processing in Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Kratochvíla, Jiří ; Šroubek,, Filip (referee) ; Tintěra,, Jaroslav (referee) ; Jiřík, Radovan (advisor)
The theoretical part of this work describes perfusion analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging from data acquisition to estimation of perfusion parameters. The main application fields are oncology, cardiology and neurology. The thesis is focused on quantitative perfusion analysis, specifically it contributes to solving of the the main challenge of this method – correct estimation of the contrast-agent concentration sequence in the arterial input of the region of interest (arterial input function). The goals of the thesis are stated based on literature review and on the expertise of our group. Blind deconvolution is selected as the method of choice. In the practical part of this thesis, a new method for arterial input function identification based on blind deconvolution is proposed. The method is designed for both preclinical and clinical applications. It was validated on synthetic, preclinical and clinical data. Furthermore, possibilities of the longer temporal sampling provided by blind deconvolution were analyzed. This can be used for improved spatial resolution and possibly for higher SNR. For easier deployment of the proposed methods into clinical and preclinical use, a software tool for perfusion data processing was designed.
Nursing Problems of Patients with Skin Cancer
The character of oncological diseases can be benign or malignant. Both variants have fundamental consequences for the patient. If the changes in the skin are malignant, treatment is necessary. In case the medical finding is benign, it depends on the patient whether the tumour would have it removed or not. In any case, the patient must be informed about all risks and especially the dispensarisation which is the most significant factor for early diagnosis and effective treatment. Oncological disease of skin entails many significant changes in the patient's life. The patient's order of values, lifestyle, as well as perception of life changes. In this difficult situation, the support of the patients from the side of family and loved ones, as well as of the medical personnel, is crucial. The patient's need of security and safety must be satisfied, as it is a significant factor in coping with the disease development from diagnostics to treatment and eventual dying. The concept of the bachelor thesis is theoretical and based on the study and analysis of information sources related to the issues of oncological disease of skin. To introduce the largest and very important organ the skin its anatomy and physiology is briefly described at the beginning. Subsequently, oncological diseases of skin, divided into benign tumours, their variants and characteristics, are outlined. The subchapter of malign tumours lists the most frequent malignant skin tumours, i.e. basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and melanoma. Again, their characteristic and seriousness is described. Diagnostics and therapy of oncological diseases of skin is worth mentioning. The prognosis of the entire disease depends on early diagnostics. If it is timely, the treatment is less demanding and the patient handles it much better. In the area of therapy, the most frequent methods of treating this disease are illustrated. In connection with this disease, it is important to mention dispensarisation and prevention, oncological and palliative care as well as the impact of the disease on the patient's psychic condition. The bachelor thesis is complemented with supplements in the form of tables. One of them refers to incidence, mortality and prevalence of malignant melanoma from 1994 to 2014. Other tables serve for easier understanding of classification of skin tumours. The objective of the thesis was to map the nursing care of oncological diseases of skin. A nurse is an important element of prevention. She can be helpful and educate the population about self-monitoring of skin. During the treatment, the nurse applies medicaments and treats skin after surgical procedures or radiotherapy. The nurse plays an essential role within oncological and palliative care. That is why her relevance is described in several chapters. For many patients, the support of the nursing staff is a very important factor also in the area of psychic condition, on which the approach to the disease, as well as the development of the treatment, are based. It was necessary to acquire many findings about oncological diseases of skin to write this thesis. Many experts are engaged in this area nowadays, especially in the area of treatment. Information was obtained from both Czech and foreign expert bibliographic publications and articles. The studied information is incorporated into individual chapters that can be beneficial for anyone who is engaged in this specific area of oncology.
Analýza pracovních stresorů zdravotnického personálu pracujícího s onkologickými pacienty
Bőhmová, Ivana
This bachelor thesis deals with the analysis of stressors in the selected company. The work is aimed at medical staff at oncology departments. The theoretical part summarizes the findings of the stress in general and about the stress associated with the practice of the profession of medical staff, especially in oncology facilities. In the practical part manifestations of stress, work stressors and relaxation methods in specific oncological institutions are collected through questionnaires and analyzed. On the basis of established relationships are formulated proposals and measures to improve the current situation at these workplaces.

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