National Repository of Grey Literature 454 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Quantifying the natural rate of interest in a small open economy : the Czech case
Hlédik, Tibor ; Vlček Jan
We identify the natural rate of interest in the Czech Republic as the real rate consistent with output at its equilibrium level and inflation at the target. To identify the rate, we use a (semi-)structural model featuring rational expectations and a forward-looking interest rate rule. Compared to the mainstream literature, the model provides a comprehensive set of cross-restrictions with respect to unobserved variables, including that of the natural rate. Furthermore, we argue that the natural rate of interest in a small open economy is a function of equilibrium real growth adjusted for equilibrium real exchange rate appreciation. Our findings suggest that the natural interest rate in the Czech Republic was around 1 percent in 2017. The current decline of the natural rate from its peak in 2015 mainly reflects the renewed appreciation of the equilibrium real exchange rate on the back of robust real GDP growth.
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Spillovers from euro area monetary policy: a focus on emerging Europe
Benecká, Soňa ; Fadajeva, Ludmila ; Feldkircher, Martin
This paper investigates the international effects of a euro area monetary policy shock, focusing on countries from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe (CESEE). To that end, we use a global vector autoregressive (GVAR) model and employ shadow rates as a proxy for the monetary policy stance during normal and zero-lower-bound periods. We propose a new way of modeling euro area countries in a multi-country framework, accounting for joint monetary policy, and a novel approach to simultaneously identifying shocks. Our results show that in most euro area and CESEE countries, prices adjust and output falls in response to a euro area monetary tightening, but with a substantial degree of heterogeneity.
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Firm investment, financial constraints and monetary transmission: an investigation with Czech firm-level data
Babecká Kucharčuková, Oxana ; Pašalićová, Renata
This project investigates the effect of financial constraints and monetary policy on firms’ investment behaviour using Czech firm-level data. The empirical specification is based on the dynamic neoclassical investment model, which explains investment by sales and cash flow. In addition, it includes financial constraints and other factors. We differentiate firms according to their size and type of economic activity. We find that indebtedness and availability of liquidity have significant effects on investment. In the post-crisis period firms obtained less additional credit due to greater riskiness and tended to accumulate more liquidity. Expectations about future GDP growth and business sentiment are positively related to investment. At the same time, we observe considerable heterogeneity of the results across sectors. The impact of the short-term real interest rate is highly significant for firms of all sizes and in all important sectors of the Czech economy, reflecting monetary policy effectiveness.
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Essays on Macro Imbalances, Monetary Policy and Exchange Rates
Hájek, Jan ; Horváth, Roman (advisor) ; Hartwell, Christopher (referee) ; Komárek, Luboš (referee) ; Kapounek, Svatopluk (referee)
The dissertation consists of four empirical papers in the field of monetary economics. The first paper examines the extent of real exchange rate misalignment in the selected euro area countries, the next two papers shed light on macroeconomic spillovers in the remaining EU countries which are not part of the single currency area, while the last paper focuses on the exchange rate pass-through in the Czech Republic.
The Effects of Monetary Policy on Real Estate Market: a SVAR Analysis
Stirba, Pavel ; Čech, František (advisor) ; Hlaváček, Michal (referee)
This thesis empirically investigates the effects of monetary policy instruments on the real estate market for the following countries: Germany, France, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom, using a Structural Vector Autoregression model (SVAR) with Choleski recursive identification. This was done from the three different aspects: interest rate, scale of credit, and output. The covered period lasts from the first quarter of 2005 and then varies, depending on the country. The Wu-Xia shadow rate was used as a proxy for the interest rate, households' debt was used as a proxy for scale of credit, and real GDP was used as a proxy for the output. As the output of the analysis, we used the impulse response functions (IRF) and forecast errors variance decomposition (FEVD). The results suggest that the Residential Property Prices (RPPI) in every country react positively to an output shock and negatively to interest rates (except Spain). The effect of household debt on RPPI and statistical significance of intervals depend on the country observed.
Bank credit risk management in the low-interest rate environment
Maivald, Matěj ; Teplý, Petr (advisor) ; Pečená, Magda (referee)
The thesis examines the relation of the low-interest rate environment to the banks' selected credit risk measures with a panel dataset on banks in Eurozone, Denmark, Japan, Sweden, and Switzerland covering the period 2011-2017. It employs a system GMM framework and a combination of bank-related and macroeconomic variables. This study builds on recent literature on effects of low-interest rates on banks' profitability and estimates the following three hypotheses: The potential effects of the low-interest rate on non-performing loans (NPL) ratio, risk-weighted assets (RWA) to total assets ratio, and changes in Tier 1 capital ratio. There are three main results: Firstly, the results suggest that a prolonged period of negative monetary interest rate can affect the NPL ratio and reveal a possible relationship between the 3M-interbank interest rate and NPL ratio. Thus, the thesis does not reject the first hypotheses. However, it rejects these hypotheses in case of the other two ratios. Secondly, the study finds a bank heterogeneity to be a significant determinant of the credit risk. Finally, using recent data, this thesis contributes to the literature focusing on the drivers of the NPL ratio, RWA to total assets ratio and Tier 1 capital ratio, where in case of the latter two the existing research is...
Unconventional Monetary Policy Tools - Description and Evaluation of their Efficiency
Bandžak, Denis ; Hlaváček, Michal (advisor) ; Buliskeria, Nino (referee)
This thesis examines the role of unconventional monetary policy tools during and after the global financial crisis with a particular focus on three main parts - their description, implementation and efficiency. By introducing a thorough discussion based on both past and most recent papers on this topic, we provide an updated view on the classification of individual unconventional monetary policy tools which is often used inaccurately by the current literature. We further enrich the discussion by describing different strategies which central banks used before and after the global financial crisis along with the future plans and tendency of central banks in monetary policy. We conclude the thesis by our own analysis of the effects of quantitative easing on GDP and CPI using a Bayesian vector autoregression model with sign restrictions applied on Japan, the Eurozone, the UK and the US. We find a more pronounced and significant effect of quantitative easing on GDP and CPI for the UK and the US than for the Eurozone and Japan. Nevertheless, our findings have to be considered with utmost care as the model is very simplified and sensitive to the parameters chosen. Keywords: Monetary Policy, Unconventional Monetary Policy Tools, Quantitative Easing, Bayesian Vector Autoregression
Monetary Policy, Macroprudential Policy and Financial Stabiliy in the Post-Crisis Framework
Malovaná, Simona ; Holub, Tomáš (advisor) ; Teplý, Petr (referee) ; Juselius, John Mikael (referee) ; Šaroch, Stanislav (referee)
This dissertation consists of four empirical papers analysing and discussing central bank policies in the post-crisis period. After the global financial crisis central bankers and other regulators have faced many new challenges, including a prolonged period of acommodative monetary policy, side effects of monetary policy easing on financial stability and interaction of macroprudential, microprudential and monetary policy. On top of that, policy makers must deal with uncertainty surrounding the transmission and the effectiveness of newly introduced macroprudential measures. The empirical analyses focus primarily on the Czech Republic and its banking sector, with an exception of the first essay. Using data for the Czech Republic and five euro area countries, the first essay shows that monetary tightening has a negative impact on the credit-to-GDP ratio and banks' capital-to-asset ratio, while these effects have strengthened considerably since mid-2011. This supports the view that accommodative monetary policy contributes to a build- up of financial vulnerabilities, i.e. it boosts the credit cycle. The second essay assesses the transmission of higher additional capital requirements stemming from capital buffers and Pillar 2 add-ons on banks' capital ratio, capital surplus and implicit risk weights. The results...
The impact of CNB's exchange rate commitment on Czech exports
Teichman, Jiří ; Paulus, Michal (advisor) ; Baxa, Jaromír (referee)
The thesis evaluates the effect of Czech National Bank's exchange rate commit- ment on Czech sectoral exports. Thus, we show how unconventional monetary policies could affect the exports. To assess the impact of interventions, we use Synthetic Control Method. The method constructs synthetic Czech exports from data of comparable countries that were not under the policy of inter- est and compares them to observed Czech exports following the interventions. We expect a positive effect of Czech National Bank's commitment on Czech exports, because the interventions resulted in the undervaluation of koruna causing a higher demand for Czech goods abroad. Additionally, the exporters should benefit from reduced uncertainty caused by no exchange rate volatility with the euro area. The results showed a positive impact of interventions only in half of the export sectors. The positive effect of a stable exchange rate is not confirmed, because the effect on the euro area countries in some categories was smaller than for the other countries. The results for total sectoral exports were stable across model specifications and confirmed by analysis of Czech bi- lateral sectoral exports to the largest destinations. The significant contribution of this thesis is application of Synthetic Control Method on total sectoral...
The Effects of Monetary Policy on Housing Prices: Evidence from the Czech Republic
Michalec, Jan ; Havránek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Holub, Tomáš (referee)
This thesis explores the relationship between interest rates, house prices and main macroeconomic variables. In particular, I examine how monetary policy affects house prices in the Czech Republic. The hypotheses assume that an increase in the interest rate that tends to decrease house prices also reduces output and inflation simultaneously. Therefore, the latter would imply that the monetary authority faces a trade-off between macroeconomic and financial stability. The empirical analysis is based on a vector autoregression model and the monetary policy shock is retrieved by the Cholesky decomposition. As for the results, the findings of the thesis conclude that there is a costly trade-off between macroeconomic and financial stability within the Czech economy.

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