National Repository of Grey Literature 92 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Bacterial proteins in the biogenesis of mitochondria of unicellular eukaryotes.
Petrů, Markéta ; Doležal, Pavel (advisor) ; Embley, Martin (referee) ; Hashimi, Hassan (referee)
in English Formation of mitochondria by the conversion of a bacterial endosymbiont is the fundamental moment in the evolution of eukaryotes. An integral part of the organelle genesis was the displacement of the endosymbiont genes to host nucleus and simultaneous creation of new pathways for delivery of proteins synthesized now in the host cytoplasm. Resulting protein translocases are complexes combining original bacterial components and eukaryote-specific proteins. In addition to these novel protein import machines, some components of the original bacterial secretory pathways have remained in the organelle. While the function of a widely distributed mitochondrial homolog of YidC, Oxa1, is well understood, the role of infrequent components of Sec or Tat translocases has not yet been elucidated. So far, more attention has been paid to their abundant plastid homologs, which assemble photosynthetic complexes in the thylakoid membrane. In the thesis, the structure and function of prokaryotic YidC, Sec and Tat machineries and their eukaryotic homologs are described. By comparing both organelles of the endosymbiotic origin, the hypothesis is drawn on why these translocases have been more "evolutionary successful" in plastids than in mitochondria.
The Role of Tyrosine Kinase Activity of Mitochondrial ERBB2/HER2 in Breast Cancer
Novotná, Eliška ; Rohlena, Jakub (advisor) ; Vrbacký, Marek (referee)
Breast cancer is a common malignant disease affecting millions of women worldwide. Amplification of HER2 oncogene, a tyrosine kinase receptor, in breast cancer allows application of targeted therapy, but approximately one third of patients develop resistance to treatment. Relocalization of HER2 from the plasma membrane into the mitochondria was found and suggested as one of the potential causes of such resistance. Here we document that the function of mitochondrial HER2 is distinct from that of HER2 in the plasma membrane. Mitochondrial HER2 enhances cancer cell energetic metabolism, proliferation and migration in vitro, and tumour formation in vivo in mice correlating with elevated level of ROS signalling. The kinase activity of mitochondrial HER2 is unaffected, therefore I investigated its role in mitochondrial HER2 function. Moderate, endogenous levels of the kinase activity of mitochondrial HER2 drive pro-tumorigenic properties of breast cancer cells, while constitutive kinase activity sensitizes these cells to cell death and attenuates tumour formation in animal models. On the other hand, impairment of kinase activity due to mutation in the ATP binding site of mitochondrial HER2 supports adherence-independent growth in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. We propose that HER2 function in...
Oxidative phosphorylation system in rare types of mitochondrial diseases
Zdobinský, Tomáš ; Tesařová, Markéta (advisor) ; Pecinová, Alena (referee)
In their bioenergetic metabolism mammalian cells are primarily dependent on ATP production through the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). Defects of OXPHOS function can lead to occurrence of mitochondrial disorders with different severity and diverse symptoms. Most severely affected are usually tissues with high energy demand which are also difficult to access for biochemical and other examinations. The aim of this thesis was mainly to characterize the effects of mutations in seven different genes (OPA1, DARS2, NDUFS8, NR2F1, HTRA2, MGME1, POLG) on bioenergetic metabolism and mitochondrial network structure of skin fibroblasts from eight different patients diagnosed with mitochondrial disorders. The main method used was measurement of oxygen uptake by permeabilized cells using highly sensitive polarography. Significant changes in fibroblast respiration of four patients were found. Changes in mitochondrial network morphology were found in two of those and two other patient cell lines compared to controls using fluorescent microscopy and different cultivating conditions. Skin fibroblasts are relatively easy to obtain and offer a number of benefits for both diagnostic and study purposes. The results of this work illustrate the possibilities of their use for validation of potential causal...
Interaction between hydrogenosomes and endoplasmic reticulum in Trichomonas vaginalis
Kučerová, Jitka ; Tachezy, Jan (advisor) ; Černý, Jan (referee)
Endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) is a protein complex tethering ER and mitochondria. ERMES consists of four core subunits - Mmm1, Mmm2 (Mdm34), Mdm10 and Mdm12. It was first discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and most functional information is based on studies of this organism. ERMES affects mitochondrial distribution and morphology, participates in lipid trafficking and is important for homeostasis of the cell. In Trichomonas vaginalis, the human urogenital parasite, three genes for putative, highly divergent components of ERMES complex were predicted. However, the cell localization of these proteins and their function is unknown. This thesis is focused on investigation of ERMES components in T. vaginalis, their cellular localization, interactions between components and identification of their possible interacting partners.
Molecular bases of sensitivity to electron transport chain inhibition-induced cell death
Blecha, Jan
1 Abstract in English Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) targeting shows a great promise in cancer therapy. However, why modern ETC-targeted compounds are tolerated on the organismal level and what are the molecular reasons for this tolerance remains unclear. Most somatic cells are in a non-proliferative state, and features associated with the ETC in quiescence might therefore contribute to specificity. Thus, we investigated the ETC status and the role of two major consequences of ETC blockade, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inhibition of ATP production, in cell death induction in breast cancer cells and in proliferating and quiescent non-transformed cells. First, we characterised the effect of a newly developed ETC inhibitor mitochondria- targeted tamoxifen (MitoTam) in in vitro and in vivo tumour models of breast cancer with varying status of the Her2 oncogene. We document that Her2high cells and tumours have increased assembly of respiratory supercomplexes (SCs) and increased complex I-driven respiration in vitro and in vivo. They are also highly sensitive to MitoTam. Unlike the parental compound tamoxifen, MitoTam efficiently suppressed experimental Her2high tumours without systemic toxicity. Mechanistically, MitoTam inhibits complex I- driven respiration and disrupts respiratory...
Mitochondrial permeability transition pore
Sereghy, Ursula ; Hansíková, Hana (advisor) ; Čapková, Markéta (referee)
The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is highly evolutionarily conserved channel found in the inner membrane of mitochondria. This pore is non-selectively permeable for molecules below 1,5 kD. Consequences of the pore opening due to an increase of Ca2+ or reactive oxygen species (ROS) and following depolarization of the membrane involve a disruption of the proton gradient, decrease in the production of ATP and prevalently a cell death. Death of a cell as a result of the mPTP opening is a physiopathological mechanism which follows ischemic diseases and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimers and Huntingtons disease. Study of a structure and function of mPTP is essential for the research of mechanisms and progression of diseases, and it is crucial for the development of responding drugs and an overall decrease in the morbidity of the patients. This work compiles the course of the research into structure and function of the channel under physiological and pathological conditions and briefly puts down some of the experimental methods.
Horizontal transfer of mitochondria and its role in carcinogenesis
Nováková, Anna ; Neužil, Jiří (advisor) ; Rösel, Daniel (referee)
Mitochondria are essential organelles as they produce most ATP to support cellular activities, synthesize critical metabolic factors and are involved in lipid and phospholipid metabolism as well as calcium signalling. The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system, present at the inner mitochondrial membrane, plays role in regulation of cellular metabolism and survival of cancer cells. Recent studies show importance of OXPHOS in growth of cancer cells via regulation of the de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), a flavoprotein localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane, converts dihydroorotate (DHO) to orotate within the de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway, generating electrons that are transferred, via redox- cycling of ubiquinone, to complex III (CIII) of respiratory chain. Since DHODH is functionally linked to CIII activity, impairment of respiration results in reduced activity of DHODH and pyrimidine synthesis. Therefore, mitochondrial damage or mutation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) leads to decreased respiration, cancer cell proliferation and delay of tumour growth. As a compensation for damaged mitochondria, horizontal transfer of functional mitochondria from donor somatic cells to the mitochondria-damaged tumour cells was demonstrated. This...
Molecular bases of sensitivity to electron transport chain inhibition-induced cell death
Blecha, Jan ; Rohlena, Jakub (advisor) ; Brábek, Jan (referee) ; Pecinová, Alena (referee)
1 Abstract in English Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) targeting shows a great promise in cancer therapy. However, why modern ETC-targeted compounds are tolerated on the organismal level and what are the molecular reasons for this tolerance remains unclear. Most somatic cells are in a non-proliferative state, and features associated with the ETC in quiescence might therefore contribute to specificity. Thus, we investigated the ETC status and the role of two major consequences of ETC blockade, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inhibition of ATP production, in cell death induction in breast cancer cells and in proliferating and quiescent non-transformed cells. First, we characterised the effect of a newly developed ETC inhibitor mitochondria- targeted tamoxifen (MitoTam) in in vitro and in vivo tumour models of breast cancer with varying status of the Her2 oncogene. We document that Her2high cells and tumours have increased assembly of respiratory supercomplexes (SCs) and increased complex I-driven respiration in vitro and in vivo. They are also highly sensitive to MitoTam. Unlike the parental compound tamoxifen, MitoTam efficiently suppressed experimental Her2high tumours without systemic toxicity. Mechanistically, MitoTam inhibits complex I- driven respiration and disrupts respiratory...
The role of mitochondrial genome in cardioprotection induced by the adaptation to chronic hypoxia
Nedvědová, Iveta
Cardiovascular intervention studies are a very important issue given that the ischaemic heart disease is one of the main mortality and morbidity causes in the Western world. Cardioprotection is mediated through a variety of signalling pathways in the cell that may directly or indirectly affect energy metabolism and mitochondria. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury of the heart significantly affect mitochondrial function revealing a potential therapeutic target. The role of mitochondria in the myocardium is not only in the field of energy homeostasis, but also in mediating the cellular response to reduced oxygen supply and in apoptosis regulation. This thesis aims to elucidate the response of the hypertrophied heart of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and the derived conplastic strain with mitochondrial genome of normotensive Brown Norway (SHR-mtBN ) to the cardioprotective regime of adaptation to chronic normobaric hypoxia (CNH, Fi 0.1). The adaptive changes were studied at the cellular, protein and gene levels using Real-time RT-PCR, Biomark Chip Analysis, Western Blot, spectrophotometric measurements of enzyme activity and quantitative immunofluorescence analyses. The present thesis was based on a different cardioprotective phenotype between SHR and SHR-mtBN strains, i.e. a significantly smaller...
The role of energy metabolism in cardioprotection induced by the adaptation to chronic hypoxia
Kolář, David
Cardiac energy metabolism is the one of the most complex system in the body. To sustain life, but also to respond quickly to any sudden changes (e.g. running, emotional stress), the heart has developed a unique ability and has become a metabolic "omnivore". At physiological conditions, long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) present the major energetic source for the adult myocardium. However, the cardiac energy metabolism may be compromised during pathophysiological states. One of the most dangerous is, undoubtedly, ischaemia-reperfusion injury with its acute form, myocardial infarction. However, the adaptation to chronic hypoxia has been known for decades for its cardioprotective effect against I/R. Changes of cardiac energy metabolism induced by the adaptation have not been fully explored and the system conceals still too many secrets. This thesis has aimed to determine how adaptation to chronic hypoxia affects the cardiac metabolism of the rat LVs in the following set-ups: 1. The effect of chronic normobaric hypoxia (CNH; 3 weeks, 5500m) during a brief I/R protocol in vitro on the protein kinase B/hexokinase (Akt/HK) pathway, including the expression and phosphorylation of Akt, the expression and localization of HK, the expression of mitochondrial creatine kinase (mtCKS), and the level of Bcl-2 family...

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