National Repository of Grey Literature 592 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
International trade in pharmaceuticals
Šmíd, Jindřich ; Růžička, Květoslav (advisor) ; Müller, Milan (referee) ; Poláček, Bohumil (referee)
International trade in pharmaceuticals Abstract The purpose of this thesis is to provide an analysis of the human pharmaceuticals international trade. This work examines the general questions of the diagonal relationships between states and private foreign pharmaceutical companies because there are a lot of many specific problems too. The author also focuses on questions concerning the contractual relationships of many stakeholders. There are many opportunities to beginning new directions in research innovative medicines and personalized medicine, but there are dangerous situations for the generic pharmaceutical market. Only a comprehensive knowledge and understanding of these relationships are efficient to develop new pathways to solving problems. The hypothesis of this dissertation text is the concept of efficiency good relationships to the stable distribution of the pharmaceutical products. There are many aspects of the relationships between stakeholders with possibility influencing of the final benefit from the business. Problems result from different interest, strength or weakness of stakeholders. In essence speaking, this thesis is divided into three parts. At first, with regard to our membership in the European Union, it was necessary to make the analysis some legislation of the European Union which...
Estimates of the role of non-tariff measures in trade between CZE/EU and Japan
Srna, Jan ; Semerák, Vilém (advisor) ; Palanský, Miroslav (referee)
Japan and the European Union negotiated and ratified an agreement about free-trade area that came into effect in January 2019. There haven't been enough data for Japan and the Czech Republic to show the actual impact yet. Gravity model is a useful tool for international trade that can be used to estimate the effect. Various types of methods are used for estimation. The main ones used here in this paper are Random effects and Poisson Pseudo Maximum Likelihood (PPML) estimator. According to PPML model, the impact of the treaty is expected to be 57.3% increase of imports. The model shows positive trade potential for Japan and the Czech Republic. Especially for Japan there is a large gap between model prediction and actual values which means a small trade creation is expected. However, the most of the increasement of bilateral trade should be originated from trade diversion.
Economic and legal aspects of euro adoption in the Czech Republic
The Czech Republic has committed itself to adopt the euro with joining the European union in 2004. Until today there has not been any political interest of setting the specific date of euro adoption due to low public approval. Currently, there is an increase of positive public opinion about euro so it is the right time to start an objective discussion. The thesis is divided into three parts. The First part describes the history and evolution of the European monetary union, Maastricht convergence criteria and the theory of optimal currency area. The second part presents possible economic benefits and costs of joining the monetary union. The third and the main part examines the real effects of euro adoption on sample of selected countries with similar characteristics. The impact of euro on main economic indicators was analysed and there has been carried out a comparison between these countries. Also the role of euro in trade of selected countries has been highlighted. Last but not least, the possible impact of euro on country competitivness has been analysed in the context of optimum currency area theory. It is expected that joining the monetary union leads to a boost of bilateral trade which harmonizes the economic cycles of trade partners. The main purpose of this part is to prove the increase of competitiveness of exporters gained from monetary union measured by the raise of the bilateral trade interconnection. Finally these two criteria - gross domestic product alignment and bilateral trade interconnection have been used to describe the suitability of Czech Republic as a candidate country for the European monetary union.
Legal Aspects of Withdrawal from the EU
The thesis Legal Aspects of Withdrawal from the EU is divided into two parts. The theoretical part sums up the legislation of the withdrawal according to article 5O of the Lisbon Treaty. There is also an example of withdrawal from the EU before the article 50 has been even applied. The section dedicated to the practical results attained from the research was completed by analysing existing preferential agreements, which the UK has owing to EU, as any other member state. Then the same analysis has been carried out with existing preferential agreements, that the UK concluded with third countries. There has been done a forecast of the trade balance and its effect on GDP for the next two years according to the prediction of the Bank of England.
Freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in CITES
This work assesses the international trade in the Unionidae species from 1987 to 2015. The species of the Unionidae family are listed in the CITES International Convention. Most of them (26 species from 12 genera) are included in Appendix I of CITES, only three species (Cyprogenia aberti, Pleurobema clava and Epioblasma torulosa rangiana) are listed in Annex II. They are mainly US endemic, or USA and Canada. Most of them occur only in one or two rivers, often only in a certain section of the river. These species are host specific. Some of them are bound to only one genus or species of fish. From a trading point of view, Unionidae were traded in the following forms: shells, carved shells, derivatives, live individuals and specimens. The species Dromus dromas, Pleurobema clava, Cyprogenia aberti and Conradilla caelata were traded the most. The most common was the trade in the shells of individuals whose origin dates from before the inclusion of the species Unionidae to CITES for commercial purposes. These individuals were mostly of an unknown provenance and if the country of origin was stated, it was United States of America. The places, from which they were exported most were Hongong and the Philippines. The most frequent place of import were the US.
Foreign trade raletions of the Czech Republic
MAŠEK, Martin
The main aim of this bachelor thesis is to evaluate the development of foreign trade relations between the Czech Republic and other countries. It focuses on identifying the most important business partners with the help of foreign trade indicators. The bachelor thesis describes individual business agreements concluded by the Czech Republic or the European Union. An important role in the bachelor thesis has data from the Czech Statistical Office, which map the foreign trade of the Czech Republic in individual years.
Gravity Model Estimation of the Russian Export: The Role of FDI
Horváthová, Monika ; Svoboda, Karel (advisor) ; Vykoukal, Jiří (referee) ; Cibulková, Petra (referee)
The main objective of this thesis was to examine the determinants of Russian export directed to its 36 main trading partners. Employing the Gravity model, the standard gravity variables, such as economic masses of the trading partners and their distance, were estimated as having significant impacts on the volume of export from Russia. However, a special attention was paid to the role of FDI, studying whether FDI flows or FDI stock act as complements or substitutes of the export. Unfortunately, with the help of the Fixed-effects and the Random-effects estimation methods we came to statistically insignificant conclusions, which might have been caused by the prevalence of missing observations in the FDI variables.
Machine learning-based approaches to forecasting international trade
Kovařík, Tomáš ; Semerák, Vilém (advisor) ; Macháček, Vít (referee)
In this thesis I focus on comparison of gravity model estimated with ordinary least squares and Poisson pseudo-maximum likelihood with regression techniques based on machine learning, namely support vector machines, random forests, and arti_cial neural networks. I discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches and compare their forecasting accuracy on exports data. I demonstrate that random forest models and arti_cial neural networks provide superior forecasting accuracy.
Obligational means of securing claims in the international trade
Micikowska, Natalia ; Pauknerová, Monika (advisor) ; Rozehnal, Aleš (referee) ; Zahradníčková, Marie (referee)
Obligational means of securing claims in the international trade Abstract The subject of this dissertation is obligational means of securing claims and their functioning in the commercial transactions with international coverage. The thesis is primarily concentrated upon the statutory securing instruments most often encountered in practice i.e. surety, financial (bank) demand guarantees, contractual assignment of receivables causa cavendi, letters of credit and letters of intent. The thesis is divided into four parts. The first part deals with the introduction into the subject of negotiable instruments of securing obligations, provides an overview of the historical development of selected instruments, endeavours to outline the difference between the securing instruments conceived as rights in rem and those seen as obligations and eventually raises the issue of methodology. Afterwards the analysis is carried out on two levels: in the second part the author focuses on the applicable approach in determining the governing law in accordance with international and national regulations and afterwards on the topic of the unified norms developed by the international organisations that may be relevant in the light of the thesis' subject-matter. In this regard the works of the International Chamber of Commerce in...
Great Britain and Free Trade. Analysis of British parliamentary debate in the context of TTIP negotiations
Heyzl, Martin ; Váška, Jan (advisor) ; Kasáková, Zuzana (referee)
Bachelor thesis Great Britain and Free Trade, Analysis of the British parliamentary debate in the context of TTIP negotiations deals with the stances of major British political parties, the Conservative Party, the Labour Party and to lesser extent also the Liberal Democrats, towards the free trade and the TTIP protocol. The thesis first examines the relationship of individual parliamentary parties to international and therefore free trade. The next chapter describes the TTIP protocol, which was to be a free trade agreement between the European Union, of which Britain is a part, and the United States. In subsequent analysis of parliamentary debates in 2013-2016 the thesis examines stances of concerned political parties towards the free trade and the TTIP protocol. In the course of this thesis I had worked with the research question in following wording: "What are the reservations and possible limits of Great Britain in promoting free trade - in a comparison of the three main concepts of British politics that can be traced to the example of TTIP?". In the discussion and the subsequent conclusion the work answers this question, which are the limits of the support and possible reservations of the British political parties to the free trade and the TTIP protocol, and also why the parties have a...

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