National Repository of Grey Literature 52 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Immunomodulatory mechanisms of stem cells and their use for therapy of ocular disorders
Heřmánková, Barbora ; Holáň, Vladimír (advisor) ; Heissigerová, Jarmila (referee) ; Indrová, Marie (referee)
Stem cell-based therapy represents a perspective approach for the treatment of many so far incurable diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are currently the most studied stem cells. They are able to differentiate into different cell types, to produce growth and trophic factors and can suppress the functions of cells of the immune system. During the study of the immunomodulatory properties of MSC, we focused on their effect on B cells. The mechanism of impact of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) on MSC and their effect on the production of interleukin 10 (IL-10) by B cells was analysed. We have demonstrated that MSC-treated with IFN-γ inhibit production of IL-10 by activated B cells via the cyclooxygenase-2 involving pathway. Due to their regenerative and immunomodulatory properties, MSC can be for treatment of many diseases. In this study we focused on the disease and damage of the eye. The limbal stem cells (LSC) are used for the treatment of damaged ocular surface, however their isolation is difficult and they can not be used in all cases of damage. Appropriate candidates in these cases are MSC. Therefore we have decided to compare the therapeutic potential of LSC and MSC isolated from bone marrow or adipose tissue. The study have shown that MSC isolated from bone marrow have a similar regenerative effect on...
Dental stem cells during development of vertebrate dentitions
Pešanová, Věra ; Soukup, Vladimír (advisor) ; Hovořáková, Mária (referee)
Vertebrate dentition is a dynamic structure, which continuously renews its elements, the teeth. Continuous tooth renewal is enabled thanks to the presence of epithelial and mesenchymal dental stem cells. Epithelial stem cells are located in the dental lamina, which, together with the adjacent mesenchyme, takes part in regulation of the stem cells through a complicated signalling network. This network is responsible for the positioning, correct amount, inactivity, proliferation and differention of the stem cells. Vertebrate dentitions are morphologically diverse. However, their development is, to a certain extent, controlled by shared evolutionarily conserved mollecular mechanisms. For example, epithelial stem cells of all vertebrate groups examined so far express the transcription factor Sox2 and are shown to be regulated by signalling pathways, such as Wnt/β-catenin, Shh, Fgf and Bmp. Due to the rich diversity in dental lamina morphologies, the locations of presumptive stem cells correspondingly differ among vertebrates. This thesis summarizes current knowledge on dental stem cells in each lineage to identify shared and derived aspects of vertebrate dentitions.
Relevance of Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes as a Prognostic Factors at Patients With Portal Vein Embolisation (PVE) and Patinets With PVE and Administration of Autologous Stem Cells
Brůha, Jan ; Třeška, Vladislav (advisor) ; Gürlich, Robert (referee) ; Šubrt, Zdeněk (referee)
Relevance of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes as a prognostic factors in patients with portal vein embolisation (PVE) and patients with PVE and administration of autologous stem cells Background: low future liver remnant volume (FLRV) is the cause of why 75% of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM) are primarily inoperable. Portal vein embolisation (PVE) helps to increase FLRV and so increase the operability. But PVE fails in almost 40 % of patients. Usage of stem cells (SCs) could be the way how to support the effect of PVE. Currently, there are studies of interactions of the immune system and malignancies. We do not know about papers focused on relations of the immune system and CLM in patients treated by PVE. There were not described interactions of ABC transporters and CLM at patients after PVE was performed too. Aims: the aim of this dissertation was to verify the effect of PVE and intraportal administration of SCs on the growth of FLRV and progression of the CLM. Other aims were to evaluate the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, ABCC10 and ABCC11 transportes in patients treated by surgery for CLM after PVE and their clinical relevances. Methods: intraportal administration of SCs after PVE and their effect was explored in a group of 63 patients (43 patients with PVE alone, 20 in the group PVE with...
The view of statut human embryo from ethical point of view
The work deals with looking at the status of the human embryo. The structure of the work is divided into several chapters that deal with a particular topic. The first chapter deals with the historical view of the adoption of a human embryo, in the second chapter is devoted to philosophical adopting the human embryo and view individual philosophers on this issue. The third chapter is devoted to the ethical acceptance of the issue. Here is discussed an ethical perspective on human embryo status and access two main streams which occur in this area. The next part is devoted to the present, both in terms of the ethical-philosophical, and in terms of health. In the medical section includes prenatal communication between mother and child, and research on embryonic stem cells, which is associated with a number of ethical issues.
Differential potential of neural crest cells
Wróblová, Aneta ; Krylov, Vladimír (advisor) ; Machoň, Ondřej (referee)
The neural crest is a transient structure formed during the neurulation which undergoes change of phenotype in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Subsequently, neural crest cells delaminate and migrate collectively and individually to their place of destination, where they differentiate into a broad repertoir of mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal cell types. This thesis aims to examine true differential potential of these cells based on crucial in vitro experiments. Neural crest cells show not only high migration potential, but also stem cells characteristics like multipotency and self-renewal capacity. I also provide answers to questions about cellular potency at the level of neural crest population and along anterior-posterior axis. It was necessary to clarify the essence of events leading to induction, specification, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migration of neural crest cells, since they are crucial for their differentiation potential. A major role in differentiation as well as in previous processes plays the gene regulatory network which is comprised of mutually affecting signalling pathways. Studying the behaviour of migratory and post-migratory neural crest cells is important for the research of regenerative medicine and even cancer and neurocristopathic treatment.
Clinical applications of stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases of CNS
Jančová, Pavlína ; Kubinová, Šárka (advisor) ; Heřmánková, Barbora (referee)
Stem cells have a huge therapeutic potential due to their ability to differentiate in multiple tissues. They could be used for neurodegenerative diseases treatment, which are typical for loss of specific groups of neurons, progressive course and lack of effective treatment due to their complicated pathophysiology, only therapies for elongation and simplification of patients' life are available. This thesis summarizes results of completed clinical studies and informs about ongoing studies, in which stem cell treatments are used for selected neurodegenerative diseases. Stem cell therapy for multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have a long history, some of the studies has proven therapeutic efficiency of stem cells. We don't know much about effect of stem cell treatment for patients with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, because first clinical studies were finished recently. But all clinical trials have proven safety of stem cell treatment. Replacement of damaged neurons haven't been reached yet, just protection of remaining neurons by neurotrophic and immunomodulatory factors secreted by stem cells. Keywords: neurodegenerative diseases, stem cells, clinical trials, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease
Potential of stem cell therapy for diabetic retinopathy
Palacká, Kateřina ; Holáň, Vladimír (advisor) ; Tlapáková, Tereza (referee)
Diabetic retinopathy is retinal disease causing irreversible cell damage and consequently a loss of vision. Current treatment protocols have many limitations and are associated with serious site effects. A possible treatment options for retinal degenerative diseases is a use of stem cells. There are different types of stem cells. These include embryonal stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and cells from an adult organism, among which we can include mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs can be found in almost all tissues of the adult organism. MSCs can migrate to the site of damage, regulate development of inflammation in retina, suppress the formation of fibrovascular scars and replace damaged cells such as nerve cells, photoreceptors and epithelial pigment cells. Application of MSCs could be a promising treatment for degenerative retinal diseases.
Legal aspects of stem cells research
Česáková, Barbora ; Šustek, Petr (advisor) ; Salač, Josef (referee)
This thesis deals with the issue of stem cell research and its legal aspects. The issue raises many ethical questions, especially due to its closed connection to the topics of embryonic research and right to life. In the first introductory chapter the thesis explains the topic of stem cells from biological point of view and defines and classifies stem cells by their origin and differential potential. In the second chapter the thesis briefly summarizes the history of stem cell research and deals with the ethical questions raised by closed connection of the topics of embryonic stem cell research and in vitro fertilization to the right to life. The second chapter also notes some recent possibilities and medical methods connected with stem cells, such as gene therapy and diagnostics and new eugenics. In the following chapters the thesis concentrates on the legal aspects of the topic on both national and international level. Specifically, the third chapter puts the issue of stem cells research to the contexts of the two most important conventions - the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine. The fourth chapter concentrates on legislation of Czech Republic regulating the legal status of embryo and its protection in the...
The effect of carbon nanostructures on human cell behavior and the role of fetal bovine serum in cell adhesion
Jannová, Martina
Graphene (G) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) are carbon allotropes and promising nanomaterials with an excellent combination of their properties, such as high mechanical strength, electrical and thermal conductivity, possibility of functionalization and very high surface area to volume ratio. For these reasons, G and NCD are employed next to electronics in biomedical applications, including implant coating, drug and gene delivery and biosensing. For a fundamental characterization of cell behavior on G and NCD, we studied osteoblast adhesion and proliferation on differently treated G and NCD. Generally, both G and NCD exhibited better properties for osteoblast cultivation than control tissue culture polystyrene. Better cell adhesion but lower cell proliferation were observed on NCD compared to G. The most surprising finding was that hydrophobic G with nanowrinkled topography enhanced cell proliferation extensively, in comparison to hydrophilic and flat G and both NCDs (hydrophobic and hydrophilic) with slightly higher roughness. Promoted cell proliferation enables faster cell colonization of G and NCD substrates, meaning faster new tissue formation which is beneficial in biomedical applications. Furthermore, it was shown that osteoblast adhesion was promoted in the initial absence of fetal bovine...
Utilization of stem cells
Kadlecová, Marcela ; Fikrová, Petra (advisor) ; Blažíčková, Kateřina (referee)
The aim of the thesis is to summarize the basic information about the stem cells and outline their possible use in medicine. The beginning of this thesis is focused on basic description of the stem cells, their properties, classification and method of acquisition. In next part of the thesis we are focused on typology of each of these cells and cell dividing. Our focus is at utilization of stem cells in current medicine that is pivotal theme in mine thesis, use of mesenchymal cells, their transplantation and use in the treatment of arthrosis and in plastic surgery. The thesis is further focused on the use of hematopoietic, embryonic and stem cells from the umbilical cord blood - here are described diseases which can be treated with allogeneic umbilical cord blood, and also for their use in the treatment of diseases that can be treatable by cell therapy but which are still being researched such as diabetes mellitus and Parkinson's disease or the use of stem cells in preterm infants.

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