National Repository of Grey Literature 23 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Ethics of Emmanuel Lévinas
HUŠEK, Jakub
The thesis is called Emmanuel Lévinas Ethics and its aim is to explain the ethical concept of this original French philosopher. The first part of the thesis is focused on important influences that were important for Lévinas' philosophical work. The next part of the thesis deals with dialogical personalism as a philosophical direction into which Lévinas is most often classified. The third and most important part deals with the motives that led Lévinas to the elaboration of his ethical theses and subsequently parts of these theses are processed. It turns out that the basic aspect of his theory is the social relationship of the 'I' with the Second, through which the path to transcendence leads .Lévinas' conception is considered as a sort of ethical turn in philosophy and can be considered as a return to man. Properly conceived ethics based on respect, Levinas considers being "prima Philosophia".
Death and finitude: Jaspers vs. Sartre
Chvojková, Kristýna ; Němec, Václav (advisor) ; Kouba, Pavel (referee)
The bachelor's thesis "Death and Finitude: Jaspers vs. Sartre" compares the accounts of human death and, above all, mortality in the work of J.-P. Sartre and K. Jaspers. Although both authors are often seen as existentialist philosophers, their attitudes toward death are very different. According to Sartre, man cannot relate to their own death because death does not belong in any way into the structure of being-for- itself, which means that it cannot have any sense for them. On the contrary, according to Jaspers, a human being can relate to their death through anxiety in boundary situations. Their facing the situation without trying to cloud their mortality results into their capability to differentiate between the things that are not valuable with regard to temporal finitude of human life, and existential moments above time that have a value that does not disappear with death. As a result of becoming conscious of their mortality, man actualizes their existence, becoming thus more "themselves". Contrarily, Sartre's account leads to the conclusion that man cannot be aware of their mortality - nevertheless, they are afraid of being deprived of their freedom after their death by the others. Unlike Sartre, Jaspers sees the self as a multidimensional entity, which makes it possible to say that death has a...
« CONSTRUCTIONS INACHEVEES » : The meaning of the literary fragment and of the incomplete, their signification in the construction of the human self. Stendhal, Deml, Michaux
Prokop, Lukáš ; Vojvodík, Josef (advisor) ; Hrbata, Zdeněk (referee) ; Rinner, Fridrun (referee)
The objective of this work is to analyze the relation of a literary text to one's identity, to its understanding and to its formation through the written language. The relation between man and the world founded on the awareness of one's own visibility serves as the basis for this analysis. Further, the analysis draws on a hypothesis that one's own visibility within the world is perceived as both a threat and as something inauthentic. Thus, human beings make considerable effort to form themselves according to their own principles or to become someone else with the help of literary text, to take on various disguises and masks, but also to use language as a tool enabling them to uncover their own authenticity. On the onset, such approach was represented by Stendhal's work that is considered as the founding stone of literary egotism. The reason is that, in his work, Stendhal focuses exclusively on himself, which is manifested by a double gesture: self-analysis and self-construction. Both these gestures, performed by the means of language, have a number of successors in various literatures, including Czech literature and the work of Jakub Deml. In Deml's texts, too, the double gesture of self-analysis and self-construction can be recognized. By modifying his own identity, mainly through the inclusion of other...
Reality as Self, Thing and Their Relation
Jahoda, Lukáš ; Hill, James (advisor) ; Karásek, Jindřich (referee)
The meaning of this work is to grasp the development of early-modern philosophy into "modern" philosophy on the basis of the subject-object issue, which is considered and demonstrated as ontologically entirely fundamental. The expression of this development is illustrated for reason of deeper clarification of the sense and meaning of modern philosophy. The ontology of early-modern philosophy is essentially determined through the categories of subject and object, self and thing. The most universal nature of this ontology is based on object of reality fixation which is self, thing, or both. The notions of self and thing are in this work introduced in their totality through the extreme positions of two early-modern philosophers. The demonstration of the extreme philosophy of the subject is Berkeley. The demonstration of the extreme philosophy of the object is Spinoza. On the basis of explication of their ontology is explicated the universal nature of early-modern ontology. The end of early-modern ontology and its transition into "modern" ontology happens through the reconstruction of the subject-object figure. The author of this reconstruction is Hegel. Reality is now placed neither into the subject neither into the object, but into their mutual relation.
Kierkegaard's philosophy of existence
Šimeček, Andrej ; Kouba, Pavel (advisor) ; Němec, Václav (referee)
This work takes as its central issue the existential movement as it appears in the philosophy of Soren Kierkegaard. There appears to be relatively little secondary literature on this topic, so it is a very fruitful area to explore. The texts explored include Kierkegaard's 'psychological' books, in particular Concept of Anxiety and Sickness unto Death. These provide our work with the crucial concepts of innocence, guilt, despair, anxiety, existence and spirit. From the more traditional philosophical works, Philosophical Fragments, Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments and Johannes Climacus have been utilised. These texts inform the work mostly on the meaning of movement, doubt, contradiction and absolute paradox. From the more lyrical works, this work is informed by Fear and Trembling and Repetition. Inquiry into these texts combined will provide a picture of existential movement as it is presented by Kierkegaard. This work attempts to capture the 'becoming subjective' which is so central to Kierkegaard's thought, through the reconstruction of the existential stages. It is also the purpose of this work (in the process) to treat areas of Kierkegaard's thought that are usually left untreated. The latter are for example, the problematic of the leap of sin, the unclear status of the...

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