
Ethics of Emmanuel Lévinas
HUŠEK, Jakub
The thesis is called Emmanuel Lévinas Ethics and its aim is to explain the ethical concept of this original French philosopher. The first part of the thesis is focused on important influences that were important for Lévinas' philosophical work. The next part of the thesis deals with dialogical personalism as a philosophical direction into which Lévinas is most often classified. The third and most important part deals with the motives that led Lévinas to the elaboration of his ethical theses and subsequently parts of these theses are processed. It turns out that the basic aspect of his theory is the social relationship of the 'I' with the Second, through which the path to transcendence leads .Lévinas' conception is considered as a sort of ethical turn in philosophy and can be considered as a return to man. Properly conceived ethics based on respect, Levinas considers being "prima Philosophia".


Propedeutics of cartesian coordinate system and the development of functional thinking of primary school pupils
Ročák, Štěpán ; Kloboučková, Jaroslava (advisor) ; Pilous, Derek (referee)
This thesis didactically maps and describes new didactical mathematic environment and the possibilities of its application in teaching in the first grade of primary education. In this thesis I describe the process of an experiment conducted with pupils of the 1st  5th year of elementary school, with whom I have tried and verified a series of new environment exercises. Based on the reflection of this experiment, and the analysis of pupils' solutions, I formulated a final version of these exercises. I led the process of the whole experiment in line with the constructivist educational style. In the theory part, I am mentioning the important terms of mathematics and its didactics, that are necessary for the purposes of this thesis, and that I refer to the relevant professional literature. This thesis also contains the analysis of chosen textbook collections that are related to its topic. The last part of this thesis is the final and complete series of exercises useful for teaching mathematics in the 1st grade of elementary school, especially if the teacher aims to purposefully develop the pupils' understanding of the terminology and relations from the mathematical areas of analytic geometry, functions and sequences.

 
 

Heterodox Masters of Liberal Arts and Their Discussions with Thomas Aquinas
Severa, Miroslav ; Sousedík, Stanislav (advisor) ; Heider, Daniel (referee) ; Nejeschleba, Tomáš (referee)
Heterodox master of liberal arts and theirs discussions with Thomas Aquinas Mgr. Miroslav Severa Summary: The proposed thesis deals with two important issues discussed by Tomas Aquinas in connection with the averroistic controversy that occurred in the second half of the thirteenth century in Paris. The topics are On the eternity of the world and On the unity of intellect. Its author defends the position that concerning the problem On the eternity of the Word is the solution proposed by Thomas Aquinas closer to the position of heterodox masters of liberal arts then to the attitude of some orthodox theologians. The heterodox teaching On the unity of intellect is by Thomas sufficiently disproven. The doctrine of Thomas Aquinas doesn't need to always constitute an irreconcilable antithesis against the attitude of heterodox masters as it is described by some authors. The thesis also deals the two topics on the historical background of the condemnations issued by the Parisian bishop Stephan Tempier in the years 1270 and 1277. Although the heterodox masters of liberal arts are in their philosophizing strongly influenced by the Arab philosopher Averroes theirs position concerning the relationship between fides and ratio is different. Averroes says that when the conflict between reason and revelation occurs than...


The Struggle for the Eternal and the Infinite (S.Kierkegaard and J.Patočka)
Trlifajová, Justina ; Kouba, Pavel (advisor) ; Ritter, Martin (referee)
The thesis deals with the struggle for the Eternal and the Infinite in the works of Kierkegaard and Patočka. It starts with their respective concepts of existence. Based on them, positive and negative aspects of the relation of existence and transcendence are described. The main guiding principle of the description is the movement of the infinite resignation and the movement of the faith in Fear and Trembling, which is compared with the deobjectifying and allfounding force of the Idea in Negative platonism. It turns out that in the relation between existence and transcendence, one can discern the two basic meanings of the transcendent reality. These meanings, together with the positive and negative aspects of the relation of existence to transcendence, form the dialectic of positive and negative, in which the struggle for the Eternal nad the Infinite is set, as well as the struggle for an authentic human existence.


The IThou relationship of Martin Buber and its radicalization by Emmanuel Levinas
Kroupová, Dana ; Noble, Ivana (advisor) ; Fischer, Ondřej (referee)
In this thesis I explore the relation in Buber's and Levinas's understanding. Both of these Jew philosophers endeavoured to describe an essence of genuine dialogue and both saw in dialogue the word that turns to a Thou, the primal deed of spirit. Nevertheless in spite of these similarities there are also a differences in their understanding of a dynamics within the genuine dialogue. Whereas Buber talks about a reciprocity in such a relation Levinas asserts that there is an asymmetry there and therefore he radicalizes Buber's conception and responsibility towards the other. In the first part of my thesis I focus on important influences on Buber's and Levinas' lives and introduce a "poetics" of their understanding of a genuine dialogue based particularly on their main piece of work: Buber's I and Thou and Levinas's Totality and Infinity. Although there was a communication between these two thinkers according to some philosophers it often exhibited a lack of dialogue and a failure to understand each other. Therefore I outline the similarities and differences in detail in the final chapters. Keywords Buber, Levinas, Rosenzweig, I  Thou relationship, face, reciprocity, asymmetry, responsibility, ethics, infinity


Imagination of infinity
Semerád, Martin ; Pauza, Miroslav (advisor) ; Sak, Petr (referee) ; Jirků, Petr (referee)
This work deals with a basic question of modern science and it is its indefectibility. Quality of education is reduce to an evaluation of conformity to a common known knowledge and its quantity representation. Seeds of this long process go back to an ancient academia of Gondisapur established in an Arabic world. Author proclaims that the main goal of philosophy is to show, that this is not the only way of thinking and in the same time that the main goal and power of phenomenology is to apply the transcendental epoche to overcame the truth in its regularization shape. The hardcore of modern science is located in the world of mathematics and a lot of thinkers find the Math as a land of pure sureness  the core of this work in an opposite proofs, that in fact nowadays math is all, but the correct way of thinking. The two examples are explicit: the Pythagorean Theorem and the Sum of the geometric row. This work brings a quite new view on the mathematical problem of "the point" and "the nothing" as a border of things. In the second part uses as a frame of its topic the first 18 §§ of the work "Paradoxes of the infinite" by Czech mathematician of German mother tongue Bernard Bolzano. The important idea of this study is a new ontological view on the set of prime numbers.


MAP
Merta, Johana ; Sterec, Pavel (referee) ; Mikyta, Svätopluk (advisor)
I present complex of artistic works, which I created durring my Masters studies and its interruption, so since 2012 till 2017. My topic which I worked with was cartography transfer of space to flat with manipulations of sizes and visual shortcuts and visualisations of outvisible spaces. Together with my activity I will introduce also work of another 5 artists, which I ofered them the topic of map of parallel Universe to their focus and visions.

 