National Repository of Grey Literature 83 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Adaptive immune system in patients with primary immunodeficiencies
Klocperk, Adam ; Šedivá, Anna (advisor) ; Filipp, Dominik (referee) ; Litzman, Jiří (referee)
(ENG) This thesis summarizes the results of a project dedicated to adaptive immune system of patients with partial DiGeorge syndrome caused by deletion of 22q11.2. The introduction sets the DiGeorge syndrome into a broader context of international pathophysio- clinical classification of primary immunodeficiencies and goes into detail describing its history, causes, clinical phenotype, therapeutic options and changes of the immune system. The attached manuscripts illustrate the premature aging of the T cell population, but also impaired development of B cells with low class-switched memory and high naïve subpopulations, along with high serum levels of BAFF, a B cell survival factor. The surprising lack of T independent marginal zone- like (MZ-like) B cells is reflected in decreased natural anti-α-Gal antibodies. The faulty B cell maturation and imperfect germinal center response is not caused by a deficit of follicular helper T cells, which are in fact increased in DiGeorge syndrome patients, and in most cases doesn't lead to hypogammaglobulinaemia. Despite the high incidence of autoimmune disease, in particular thyroiditis and thrombocytopenia, and a trend towards hypergammaglobulinaemia in adolescence and adulthood, we saw normal proportion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and normal expression of...
Circadian clocks in cells of the immune system
Lavrova, Kseniia ; Bendová, Zdeňka (advisor) ; Hájková, Michaela (referee)
Circadian rhythms affect all physiological processes in the body, including immune function. Circadian oscillations are observed in almost all components of the immune system. This oscillation generates molecular clocks that are in each cell and are synchronized by the main CSN pacemaker with help hormone secretion and neuronal innervation. As a result, the immune system is ready for increased responses to pathogens during the active phase when is higher risk of bruising with it. Macrophages are cells of the natural immune system and main modulators of inflammation. Their activity, including cytokine production, phagocytosis and polarization to M1 and M2 phenotypes is closely linked to the molecular clock. This association between circadian and immune systems has implications for the course of a series of inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis and atherosclerosis. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the effect of circadian system on macrophage function in inflammatory response. Keywords: circadian clocks, circadian genes, macrophage, melatonin, glucocorticoids
Changes in disgust sensitivity associated with hormonal shifts in women - adaptive system or maladaptive response?
Dlouhá, Daniela ; Kaňková, Šárka (advisor) ; Landová, Eva (referee)
Disgust (the feeling of aversion or repulsion) is based on experiencing something distasteful. As an adaptive system, it works as a protection of oneself, especially against infection by pathogens or behavior that could negatively affect one's evolutionary success. Disgust can be observed in women during times of significant hormonal changes, such as pregnancy or the luteal phase of the ovulation cycle. It was observed that these times can also be related to immunological changes, when the woman and (during pregnancy) the fetus require more intensive protection. Hormonal changes can be a sensitive time for the onset of different psychopathological disorders. These disorders are also often associated with heightened levels of disgust. Studies focusing on disgust and the onset of anxiety disorders indicate that the heightened disgust observed in pregnancy could in some cases be just the maladaptive reaction of a developing mental disorder.
Influence of bird schistosome Trichobilharzia regenti on haemocyte activity of lymnaeid snails
Skála, Vladimír
Gastropod molluscs are naturally exposed to various pathogens such as bacteria, or multicellular parasites that include digenetic trematodes (digeneans) which develop in snails. To combat these pathogens gastropods have evolved a sophisticated internal defence system that is composed of humoral and cellular arms. Lectins are probably the most important humoral components, whereas haemocytes represent the main effector cells. Immunity is one of the important factors determining compatibility/non-compatibility of gastropods and pathogens (particularly snails and trematodes). The introductory part of this thesis includes a review of literature focused on the components of the gastropod immune system and their reactions against pathogens represented by bacteria and digeneans. Additionally, selected immunomodulations caused by compatible digenean species are reviewed. Experimental work (presented in publications) focused mainly on the influence of the bird schistosome Trichobilharzia regenti on haemocyte activities of two lymnaeid snail species, Radix lagotis and Lymnaea stagnalis that are susceptible or refractory to the parasite, respectively. This schistosome parasite causes neuromotor disorders in specific definitive hosts (waterfowl), but it also causes cercarial dermatitis in accidental hosts...
Immunities in the Constitutional System of Czech Republic
Malcová, Barbora ; Kudrna, Jan (advisor) ; Jirásková, Věra (referee)
Immunities in the Constitutional System of Czech Republic The thesis Immunities in the Constitutional System of Czech Republic examines the enshrinement of the immunity of selected public officials in domestic legal system. The essay describes the objective state of legislation as well as the development of academic view of the system of exceptions and the attitude of the persons, in whose favor the element works. After a short introduction, whose purpose is to outline some possible opinions and generally believed myths about parliamentary immunity; the thesis explains some terms related to the institute - material immunity, procedural immunity, and procedural exemption. The main body of the paper reviews the individual types of immunities in detail. The first chapter discusses the Members of Parliament - the immunity of the Deputies and the Senators. It shows the evolution of the constitutional basis to the institute, presents the current form of Article in the Constitution with a numerous cases when the immunity of an MP was removed by the Parliament. It also deals with the connection of the constitutional articles to the rules of procedure of the Chambers. The thesis describes selected problematic aspects of the institute, and demonstrates a number of those with historical and present court...
Crimes under international law in the Rome Statute of the ICC and their prosecution
Huječek, Roman ; Lipovský, Milan (advisor) ; Faix, Martin (referee)
Crimes under International Law in the Rome Statute of the ICC and Their Prosecution Abstract This diploma thesis deals with crimes under international law in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and their prosecution, with a special focus on the issues of applicability of senior state officials' international immunity when it comes down to the proceedings before this court. The first part of the thesis outlines the meaning of the term crimes under international law and explains the difference between this term and the terms international crimes and transnational crimes. Next, the prosecution of these crimes under international law is set within its historical context with a special focus on the period after the start of World War I. The second part discusses the International Criminal Court's jurisdiction and, mainly, each individual crime under international law and its definition in the Rome Statute. The second part ends with a chapter concerning mental elements of these crimes and particularly the institute of command responsibility. The third part describes the procedural provisions of the Rome Statute and it guides the reader all the way from the initiation of the proceedings to the enforcement of the court's decision. The third section also offers several practical examples regarding...
Immunities of state officials from foreign criminal jurisdiction
Stachová, Lenka ; Šturma, Pavel (advisor) ; Lipovský, Milan (referee)
This thesis deals with immunities of state officials, from the high-ranking to less significant ones, from the criminal jurisdiction of a foreign state, and thus the question, if another state may exercise its jurisdiction over crimes perpetrated by state officials when the foreign state has power to punish such a crime. International law traditionally provides the highest protection to the head of state, but later evolved also the personal immunity of other senior officials, who act on the international level, that is head of government and minister for foreign affairs. In contrast to personal immunity, functional immunity protects all state officials, who perform an official act. The first chapter addresses the terms. It describes the terms immunity, its types and basic characteristics; the notion of state officials and foreign criminal jurisdiction. The second chapter engages in personal immunity (immunity ratione personae), its subjective, objective and temporal scope. The third chapter sheds light on the second type of immunity - the functional immunity (ratione materiae), apart from its scopes there are exceptions to functional immunity discussed. The fourth chapter provides with an overview of some significant cases connected to immunities of state officials. In the first subchapter you can...
The immunostimulatory agents
This bachelor thesis is focused on the immune system and the factors that affect its function. These factors and agents are then divided into the ones positively or negatively influencing our immune system. This paper provides a list of the most effective natural and pharmaceutical resources. Each chapter discusses how a given resource or activity affects our immunity, pertinently what impact it has when our immune system lacks one of these. Relevant literature on the issue of immunity and the possibility of its strengthening was used.
Secondary sexual ornaments and ectoparasites in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica)
Wichová, Eliška ; Albrecht, Tomáš (advisor) ; Sedláček, Ondřej (referee)
Parasites could represent an important evolutionary driver and play an important role in a sexual selection. In the mate selection process, females use secondary sexual ornaments, which may reflect the parasite load and health condition of males. Females would benefit from choosing males with the most extravagant sexual characters, which indicate low levels of parasite infestation. A popular model species for sexual selection study is the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). However there are no recent studies investigating the relationship between the level of the ectoparasitic infestation and the ornamentation of the barn swallow. Results of this thesis, based on analysis of ectoparasite load in 204 individuals show, that the level of infestation by feather mites is positively correlated with outermost tail feathers and the intensity of feather holes is negatively correlated with a breast coloration. The relationship between the abundance of ectoparasites and white tail spots was not found. The effect of ectoparasites on the survival of individuals or the nest initiation date was not observed. A possitive relationship between the individual seasonal change in feather mites infestation and brood size was detected. This implies a potential trade-off between the investments into parental care and defence...
Alergens in the Teaching of Natural Science, Biology and Chemistry
Kaufmanová, Lucie ; Skýbová, Jana (advisor) ; Pavlasová, Lenka (referee)
The theme of the diploma thesis is allergens in the teaching of natural science, biology and chemistry. The subject and its aim is to find out the presence of allergens in selected classes of natural sciences (natural sciences, biology, chemistry) as well as the level of awareness of problems of allergies and allergens from teachers and pupils of elementary schools and grammar schools and to compare whether teachers of selected subjects take into account Creating climate climate for allergic pupils. The thesis consists of theoretical and practical part. The first part summarizes all theoretical knowledge, including the theme of allergies and allergens. It deals with the concept of allergy from the historical point of view, it characterizes the general importance of allergies and its connection with the immune system, it presents individual risk factors influencing the origin and development of allergic disease. A large part of the theoretical part describes allergic diseases including their manifestations, diagnosis and follow-up treatment, and also the individual types of allergens that are classified according to their effects on the organism. Last but not least, the chapter deals with the presence of allergens in the school environment. Also in this part the pedagogical documents - RVP and ŠVP...

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