National Repository of Grey Literature 28 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Development, causalities and perspectives of cultivation of genetically modified and "clear field" crops in the context of world agriculture.
Němečková, Lucie ; Kuchtová, Perla (advisor) ; Josef, Josef (referee)
The introduction of genetically modified crops raised controversial reactions that divide not only the professional community into two camps. Considering that rapeseed, soya beans and corn belong to the most important crops of the world, significant attention is given to the development of their GM varieties. Based on available information, a comparative study was compiled involving the effects of genetically modified varieties of these crops on the environment, human and animal health and socio-economic area. The cultivation of genetically modified crops is profitable especially for companies developing these varieties and for the growers. However it was found that the reduction of the amount of applied herbicides was not achieved as expected. Additionally a negative affect of the active herbicide substances on the environment and human and animal health has been shown. There is a positive impact of the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions due to less frequent entries into the stands. Feeding with GM products also manifested in negative way. There is a very risky possibility of crossing and emergence of resistant weeds, in particular rape and related species as well. The reduction of biodiversity, which is often discussed, was not confirmed in all cases. The changes in the microbial community in the soil have been demonstrated. The coexistence of GM crops with conventional agriculture, and even more ecological agriculture has been shown as problematic. In accordance with the findings, it is recommended to follow the precautionary principles, to follow the varied crop rotation and to target the production to sustainable agriculture, verified by time and experience.
Chemical weed management in potatoes
Smolík, Ondřej ; Hamouz, Pavel (advisor) ; Holec, Josef (referee)
Presented thesis is focused on the topic of regulation of weeds in potatoes. The advantages and disadvantages of chemical control of weeds are investigated, including the comparison of the results obtained in both herbicidal and mechanical treatments. The core of this thesis is to find out what kind of influence has weeds on potato yield and how is the weed infestation affected be herbicides. The research was undertaken by a field experiment with eight treatments. The first one brought a field completely without any interventions. On the second field a mix of Sencor Liquid (PRE), Command 36 CS (PRE) and Roundup Klasik (PRE) was used. The third treatment was sprayed by Sencor Liquid (PRE), Command 36 CS (PRE) and Pantera QT (POST). The fourth one was treated by both Sencor Liquid (POST) and Titus 25 WG (POST). The fifth treatment obtained only mechanical interventions (machine hoeing). On the sixth one Sencor Liquid (PRE), Command 36 CS (PRE) and Roundup KLASIK (PRE) were applied in combination with the mechanical treatmant. The seventh treatment used Sencor Liquid (PRE), Command 36 CS (PRE) and Pantera QT (POST), again combined with the mechanical treatment. On the last of the experimental fields Sencor Liquid (POST), Titus 25 WG (POST) and a mechanical treatment. Treatments 2-8 were compared to the first one. In this comparison it turned out that the herbicides help on a great scale with the regulation of the weed. By the treatments 2, 3, 6 and 7 the potato yield was three time higher compared to untreated control. Treatments 4 and 8 showed that the application of some post-emergent herbicides can (due to their phytotoxicity) decrease the yield to the level of the untreated plots.
Zhodnocení výskytu polních plevelů ve vybraných plodinách
Daňhel, Vladimír
The aim of this thesis was to evaluate weed infestation of chosen crops, to compare weed infestation among each crop and evaluate used regulation interventions, eventually to suggest another solution. Evaluation was made in winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and in spring barley. In the winter oilseed rape were found Viola arvensis, Triticum aestivum, Thlaspi arvense, Chenopodium album, Geranium pusillum, Fallopia convolvulus, Stellaria media, Lamium purpureum, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Veronica persica, Tripleurospermum inodorum and Cirsium arvense. In winter wheat were Viola arvensis, Veronica persica, Brassica napus ssp. napus, Lamium purpurem, Galium aparine, Geranium pusillum, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Thlaspi arvense, Chenopodium album, Stellaria media, Matricaria recutita and Cirsium arvense. In spring barley were Viola arvensis, Raphanus raphanistrum, Lamium purpureum, Veronica persica, Thlaspi arvense, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum aviculare, Galeopsis tetrahit, Chenopodium album, Galium aparine, Geranium pusillum, and Matricaria recutita. Weed infestation was processed by canonical correspondent analysis (CCA). Finally it was suggested to use different methods for weed regulation.
Hodnocení jakosti ostropestřce mariánského [Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.]
Cekovská, Pavla
The aim of the thesis on topic: "Evaluation of the quality of milk thistle [Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.]" was to evaluate the quality indicators achenes milk thistle. To ratings were used achenes Silyb varieties that were grown in experimental plots AGRITEC s.r.o. in Šumperk and harvested in 2013 in a variety of herbicide treatments. In experiments were used the following herbicides: STOMP 400, REFINE 50 SX, BUTISAN STAR, AFALON 45 SC, TARGA SUPER 5 EC, GARLAND FORTE, GLEAN 75 WG + STARANE 250 EC. For harvested achenes were evaluated following characteristics: yield of achenes (g.m-2), HTS (g), germination of achenes (%), content dry matter (%), the quantity of oil, linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid (%) and the content silymarin complex (%). The obtained data were statistically processed in the program STATISTICA 10.
Regulation of Weeds in Grown Hybrids of Maize
NAHODIL, Antonín
The degree work describes the biology and morphology of the weed plants, which are found in maize vegetation most frequently, as well as their spreading and possible regulation. Based on the findings acquired, the methods of chemical and mechanical regulation are described. The degree work describes briefly both the plant of maize itself and the process of its growing. The attempt took place on the school farm of the Agricultural School in Tábor; a small plot attempt was carried out at the same place. The frequency of the occurrence of weed species on the selected small plots was evaluated in the hybrids of maize (Zea mays). The degree work contains data on the extent of the occurrence of weeds on individual plots, on which the individual hybrids of maize were compared with one another. It also includes an economic evaluation and possible measures to eliminate the spreading of weeds.
Biology, presence and methods of weeds regulation on a land planted with permanent grasses.
This thesis is aimed at biology, presence and methods of weeds regulation on a land planted with permanent grasses. Lately, ruderal weed species have been spreading uncontrollably throughout the lawns. It is very difficult to control their occurrence and also very economically challenging. Therefore, the farms should focus more on the possibilities of preventing excessive weed infestation and they should also define and apply the cheapest and the most favorable precautions. On the grassland, which belongs to the ZD Třebelovice, were observed the most abundant weed species. The weeds which occurred the most were: Taraxacum Officinale, Rumex Obtusifolius L, Ranunculus Repens L., Geranium Pratense L., and Urtica dioica L. The influence of the individual hay cuts on the occurrence of the chosen weed species was monitored. The influence of various herbicides was also the matter of observance. The componential task was to appraise the achieved effect after applying chosen herbicides on the weed species.
Control of weeds in cultivated root crops
Damages, which weeds caused annually are difficult to quantify and its negative influence manifests annually in all crops and all fields.Chemical weed control is presently considered an important method for controlling weeds. The essence of chemical pest weeds consists in the use of herbicides to reduce weed species population under the economic threshold of harmfulness. In an effort to control weed populations using three methods: mechanical, chemical and biological. In the thesis was mapped weeds in potatoes on private land in Plasná, district of Jindřichův Hradec in region of South Bohemia. In the practical part of this thesis, I conducted an experiment that was aimed at monitoring the effects of selected herbicides in crops of potatoes. The aim of the experiment was to verify the effects of herbicides on the population most frequently occurring weeds in the root crops. The results showed that the herbicide is more effective for preemergence weed monitored. Assessment of weed infestation was carried out numerical method (ANOVA, Tukey = 0,05) in the ARM 8 (GyllingDataManage ment, Inc.) Spring 2013 - Fall 2013.
Biology, occurence and regulation possibilities of Viola arvensis Murray in grown plants
This thesis concerns on biology, occurrence and especially, herbicide regulation of Viola arvensis Murray on arable land. On the land of the farm DZV NOVA Bystřice a small-plot experiment focused on monitoring and regulation of Viola arvensis was carried out. This experiment was carried out from September 2012 to January 2014 on three crops (winter wheat, winter barley and winter rape) in three locations. In the theoretical part we describe the biology and occurrence of this frequent weed. The aim of the thesis was to evaluate the abundance of Viola arvensis and other weed species and verify the effect of different herbicides on Viola arvensis and other weeds. The effectiveness of the tested herbicide combinations was statistically significant for Viola arvensis and also for the other weeds (P 0, 05). The exceptions were Veronica persica, Geranium pussilum and Hordeum vulgare, where the effectiveness of these agents was not proved (P > 0, 05). The results summarize the numbers of weed species and effectiveness of applied herbicides. Viola arvensis was the most frequent weed species found on the examined sites. The effectiveness of herbicide agents used against this weed was very high. The highest was by preparations Maraton + Glean 75 WG, Maraton + Logran 20 WG, Cougar Forte + Logran 20 WG a Sumimax + Glean 75 WG (100 %). Lower was by preparations Butisan 400 SC + Command 36 SC (80 %) a Butisan Star + Garland Forte (75 %). In the winter barley and winter wheat, the applied herbicides were 100% effective, only in the winter rape the effectiveness was lower (75 - 80%). I can confirm the initial hypothesis about the effectiveness of the different herbicides on field pansy because their effectiveness differed.
Biology, occurrence and regulation Apera spica-venti tufted crops grown.
ORNA, Vítězslav
Over the last decades the amount of weeds in our fields have noticeably decreased. The easily annihilated and susceptible species were almost eradicated by means of herbicides and agrotechnical operations. Their place was taken by more resistant species, which are a huge problem for the farmers. For this purpose I decided to make an experiment under the working circumstances. I observed the occurrence of the weeds in certain localities. Especially I concentrated on the silky bent grass (Apera spica-venti), on its occurrence, regulation, extension and susceptibility or resistance to certain herbicides. The effect of the tested herbicide combinations was statistically significant for silky bent grass as well as for the other weeds (P 0.05). The coach grass was the only exception, where the effect of these preparations was not proved, as well as Vicia cracca, Lamium purpurem, Galium aparine, Geranium pusillum (P > 0.05). However the coach grass appeared among these inconclusively responsive weeds more frequently. (P >0.05). As the results of experiment showed, the most effective combinations for elimination of the silky bent grass (Apera spica-venti) were Sumimax + Glean, Cugar Forte + Glean + Dural a Cugar Forte + Logran. All these combinations were proved to be 100% effective against the silky bent grass (Apera spica-venti). The other combinations were not 100% effective. These comprised Rapsan + Command+ Grounded with 89 % effectivity, Sumimax + Logran 91 % effectivity a Butisan+ Clomate+ Grounded 67 % effectivity. The results show that the silky bent grass (Apera spica-venti) is more susceptible to some herbicide combinations and in the fields it can be successfully reduced. On the contrary the silky bent grass (Apera spica-venti) is resilient to some other agents. From this point of view the right choice of the herbicides is crucial in next year.

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