National Repository of Grey Literature 228 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Effect of endocrine disruptor bisphenol S on human health and reproduction
Procházková, Bára ; Petr, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Děd, Lukáš (referee)
Bisphenol S (BPS) is an environmental pollutant that has replaced bisphenol A (BPA) in plastic and paper products since 2011 as a safer "BPA-free" alternative. However, due to its rapid replacement, its potential adverse effects have not been investigated in detail, and due to its structural similarity to BPA, many studies suggest that it acts, like BPA, as an endocrine disruptor. Its use is wide and BPS is globally widespread, found in the environment and has been detected in both animal and human tissues. Nevertheless, an overall effect of BPS on an organism remains unclear. This work is focusing on gathering sources for its effect on reproductive ability and its association with metabolic disorders.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in pregnancy
Kovářová, Tereza ; Krátká, Zuzana (advisor) ; Hadlová, Petra (referee)
(EN) Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic autoimmune disease of the intestinal tract including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and other unspecified colitis. Depending on the type of disease, inflammation affects the small or large intestine or rectum. It is a multifactorial disease in which the intestinal microflora, the immune system status, and genetic predisposition are crucial. IBD is most often diagnosed in late adolescence or early adulthood. Due to the availability of quality treatment, the health status of IBD patients also improves, allowing them to consider starting a family after the disease has calmed down. Patients have fewer children than the general population, but there was no significantly higher risk of infertility. A prerequisite for successful pregnancy and childbirth is a stable condition of the disease and the use of treatment during pregnancy to prevent relapse. A specific problem of patients is voluntary childlessness because of worries about the worsening of IBD during or after pregnancy, about negative effects of treatment on a foetus, but also an occurrence of disease in offspring This work aims to summarize the issue of pregnancy in patients with IBD and to provide information on the current situation in patients with IBD in the Czech Republic. Keywords:...
Reproductive ageing and its reflection in obstetrics in Czechia
Waldaufová, Eva ; Šťastná, Anna (advisor) ; Kocourková, Jiřina (referee)
Reproductive ageing and its reflection in obstetrics in Czechia Abstract The aim of this thesis is to explore trends in obstetrics in Czechia in the context of increasing maternal age. The key issue is the rise in the percentage of births performed by caesarean section. The first part of the work sums up the current knowledge of fertility development and describes the selected effects of fertility postponement, health risks, especially of caesarean sections. Subsequently, the evolution of fertility in Czechia between 1989 and 2018 and the development in the proportion of births by caesarean section from 1994 to 2018 are analysed. The incidence of caesarean section births is examined based on individual anonymous data from the National Health Information System in 2018. It considers the age of the mothers and other characteristics of the mothers and newborns in Czechia. The odds of giving birth by caesarean section are estimated using the binary logistical regression method. It turns out that in recent years the growth of births executed by caesarean section has stopped, although the age of mothers and the use of assisted reproduction methods continues to grow. Reproductive ageing is reflected in the increase in caesarean section births, but at the same time its occurrence is influenced by a number of other...
Fertility tables and application of the method in the analysis of regional differentiation of fertility in Spain
Ukolova, Elizaveta ; Šídlo, Luděk (advisor) ; Šťastná, Anna (referee)
The aim of the thesis is to construct period fertility tables according to Human Fertility Database methodology and different kinds of fertility indices, which are possible to derive from fertility table's functions. The method is then used when analysing regional differences in fertility behaviour among Spanish regions in 1981, 1991, 1999 and 2011. The study begins with a general overview of fertility trends in Spain. Then, the data part follows. Next, the methodology is discussed and some table's indices, which Human Fertility Database does not provide, are constructed. Following chapters focus on application of the method to real data. It was found out, that with the help of period fertility tables one can calculate not only the age and parity adjusted total fertility rate and the table mean age at birth, but also various transition probabilities between parity states and as well as other measures. All this could be done due to the possibility of deeper disaggregation of the table population. The main results obtained by applying the method brought several interesting findings. Most importantly, differences across regions in Spain have been disappearing over the years, but they still persist in some form, as regions with a higher fertility rate were concentrated in the southern part of the country in...
Swedish model of family policy as an inspiration for Czechia
Lenz, Patrik ; Kocourková, Jiřina (advisor) ; Kučera, Tomáš (referee)
Swedish model of family policy as an inspiration for Czechia Abstract The aim of this diploma thesis is to compare the development and current setting of Swedish and Czech family policy. The reason for the comparison of the state systems in the area of family support is the potential inspiration in the measures or direction of Swedish family policy in Czechia. Like the Czech model, the Swedish model of family policy is based on financial compensation for families. In addition, it provides government services (e.g. an extensive network of quality childcare centers) and the conceptuality in which Czech family policy lags. Demographic indicators examine the fertility of women in selected states in the context of family policy development. Selected indicators of female fertility show the influence of family policy in Czechia and Sweden. Besides other things the thesis deals with attitudes and opinions of inhabitants within the family values. These views were analysed based on the respondents' answers in the longitudinal research The European Values Study (EVS). Following the example of Sweden, support for the harmonization of maternity and working life or the involvement of fathers in childcare should be initially increased. Keywords: family policy, fertility, Sweden, Czechia Number of characters: 117 737
Recent knowledge on drug effect on male fertility
Klapková, Tereza ; Trejtnar, František (advisor) ; Hyršová, Lucie (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Candidate: Tereza Klapková Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. PharmDr. František Trejtnar, CSc. Title of diploma thesis: Recent knowledge on drug effect on male fertility Among the various types of side effects presented in clinically used drugs, negative effects on male reproductive functions can be find. This issue seems to be important and current especially due to the general trend of the decrease in fertility in men and the increasing drug use in younger age groups. The aim of this diploma thesis was to create an overview summarizing current expert knowledge on the effect of drugs on male fertility. For this purpose, we selected relevant publications in the PubMed database, perform their analysis and create the text ofthe thesis. The review focuses mainly on groups of drugs that are often clinically used and discussed in relation to male fertility, such as drugs acting on the cardiovascular system, antimicrobial drugs, drugs used in pain therapy, antidepressants, antiepileptics, antipsychotics, immunosuppressants and some other drugs. In addition to standard drugs, the review also includes several important natural substances, which are used as adjunctive therapy of various diseases or are important from a...
Demographic revolution in developing countries with a special regards to Africa and Zimbabwe
Muza, Collet ; Pavlík, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Fialová, Ludmila (referee) ; Pechholdová, Markéta (referee)
The demographic revolution in developing countries and Africa with special regards to Zimbabwe Abstract This dissertation aimed to examine the demographic revolution in developing countries, Africa and Zimbabwe. The decline of mortality and fertility everywhere in the world demonstrates the importance of the demographic revolution as a global process. While this universality was central to classic revolution theory, for many decades, it was questioned by demographers because fertility and mortality in Africa did not seem to follow the expected pathway. In sub-Saharan Africa the demographic revolution has been characterised by lagging, discontinuation and is occurring at a faster pace against low levels of socioeconomic development than observed in Europe, which has consequences for population dynamics. Questions have emerged if Africa is indeed different and a homogenous continent regarding demographic processes? However, empirical studies that have explored the unique demographic revolution starting from developing countries, Africa and Zimbabwe are lacking. The first part of the thesis on developing countries showed variations in the reaction of fertility to mortality decrease with historically small gaps and extended gaps in more recent revolutions, plus the much faster decrease in vital rates in many...
The role of histone modifications and gene expression in mouse spermatogenesis
Křivánková, Klára ; Mihola, Ondřej (advisor) ; Jansa, Petr (referee)
The production of haploid sperm is a precondition for sexual reproduction of males. PRDM9 protein is a histone methyltransferase which localizes sites of meiotic recombination in many mammals. Mouse males of the C57BL/6J (B6) strain deficient for Prdm9 (Prdm9-/- ) are sterile, while Prdm9-/- males of PWD/Ph (PWD) strain have reduced sperm count. The comparison of the distribution of trimethylation of histone 3 on lysine 36 (H3K36me3) in genome of Prdm9-/- males of these two strains will help to determine the role of this epigenetic modification on meiotic recombination and fertility of Prdm9-/- males. The second part of this thesis is focused on transgenic males. Male offspring from the first generation of B6 female and PWD male crosses (B6PF1) have reduced fertility parameters due to incompatibility of Prdm9 alleles. The fertility parameters of B6PF1 hybrids carrying CHORI-34-289M8 or RP24-346I22 transgene are even lower. The candidate gene, which participates in the reduction of fertility of the transgenic B6PF1 hybrids, was determined as the proteasome subunit encoding gene Psmb1, because its relative transcription level best correlates with sperm count. The reason of lowered fertility thus might be a defect in proteasome assembly. The investigation of the fitness of transgenic animals is...
Do family policies really affect fertility levels?
Jiráková, Zuzana ; Pertold-Gebicka, Barbara (advisor) ; Votápková, Jana (referee)
One of the main objectives of family policies in countries with low fertility levels is to stimulate birth rates and incentivize the citizens to have more children. Nevertheless, the research on whether this objective is being met remains inconclusive. In this thesis, we analyze two reforms which took place in the Czech Republic in 1995 and 2008, which adjusted the period of reception of the parental allowance. We use data from selected European OECD countries along with the synthetic control approach to construct a synthetic counterpart to the Czech Republic which gives us an idea about how fertility levels would have developed if the interventions did not take place. In both cases, 1995 reform and 2008 reform, we do not find any conclusive evidence that the interventions affected fertility levels in the Czech Republic. Moreover, we observe a change in the trend of total fertility rate about 2 years before each reform which suggests that these reforms were more likely reactions to changing fertility rates rather than remedies. JEL Classification J13, J17, J11, J12, E61, E65, F68 Keywords fertility, family policy, synthetic control estimator, parental allowance, parental leave Author's e-mail 31609261@fsv.cuni.cz Supervisor's e-mail barbara.pertold-gebicka@fsv.cuni.cz
The effect of education on reproductive behaviour in low-fertility settings in Slovakia after 1992
Fekiačová, Eva ; Kocourková, Jiřina (advisor) ; Kalibová, Květa (referee)
Vzťah medzi realizovanou reprodukciou a najvyšším dosiahnutým vzdelaním je v súčasnosti jeden z hlavných faktorov reprodukčného správania. V postmoderných spoločnostiach je všeobecne spájaný s negatívnym efektom vyššej vzdelanostnej úrovne na počet narodených detí. Úroveň vzdelania neovplyvňuje len konečnú plodnosť žien, či čas vstupu do materstva. Rovnako vplýva aj na preferencie jedinca, normatívne orientácie a vývoj hodnôt. Spojitosť vzdelania a reprodukcie sa dá uchopiť vo viacerých rovinách. Predkladaná práca preto poukazuje na postojové rozdiely medzi jedincami jednotlivých vzdelanostných kategórií a ponúka na príklade Slovenska v období po roku 1992 analytické i teoretické vysvetlenie vývoja a diferencie reprodukčného správania. Kľúčové slová: vzdelanie, plodnosť, reprodukcia

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