National Repository of Grey Literature 50 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Modern Markers of Organ Damage in Clinical Practice
Brož, Pavel ; Rajdl, Daniel (advisor) ; Topolčan, Ondřej (referee) ; Jabor, Antonín (referee)
Physical activity is a useful tool in the prevention of many diseases. Hospitalization after strenuous exercise from cardiac or noncardiac causes, even in young athletes without previous symptoms, can occur. These situations are not uncommon and e.g. after completing a half- marathon clinical symptoms suspicious from cardiac etiology can be present. Limitations of biomarkers used in daily clinical practice can lead to misinterpretation with additional consequences to the patient's outcome. Our goal was to describe changes of markers used in daily clinical practice after extreme physical activity and after exercise under laboratory conditions. We performed two studies in cooperation with Department of cardiology and Department of sports medicine. The goal of our first study was to examine high sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI), galectin-3, cystatin C, NGAL and ultrasensitive CRP (uCRP) after extremely long run during the competition in long distance running. The goal of our second study was to examine high- sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) and hsTnI, creatinine and cystatin C, and urine albumin and NGAL after a standardized two-hour treadmill run under laboratory conditions and to find possible connection with echocardiographic, laboratory and other assessed parameters. The second goal of study under laboratory...
Oxidative and carbonyl stress,microinflammation and cardiovascular risk in patiens with chronic kidney disease
Peiskerová, Martina ; Kalousová, Marta (advisor) ; Teplan, Vladimír (referee) ; Racek, Jaroslav (referee)
Short summary: Background: High cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease is partly due to mineral dysbalance, microinflammation and oxidative stress. CKD patients accumulate traditional and non-traditional CV risk factors. FGF23, MMPs and PlGF belong among these non-traditional biomarkers of CV risk. FGF23 is a phosphaturic hormone and inhibitor of calcitriol synthesis. It is associated with vascular calcifications. Matrix-metalloproteinases (e.g. MMP-2, MMP-9) are proteolytic, proinflammatory enzymes, contributing to myocardial remodelation. Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a proangiogenic cytokine that is associated with LV hypertrophy in animal model. Plasmatic FGF23, MMPs and PlGF are elevated in CKD. Aim: We aimed to describe dynamic changes between several novel biomarkers of CV risk (FGF23, MMP-2, MMP-9 and PlGF) in CKD stages 1-5, to describe their mutual correlations and possible association with traditional CV risk markers. We studied possible association of laboratory and echocardiographic parameters in patients with CKD stages 2-4. Methods: In a cross-sectional study we evaluated 80 patiens with CKD 1-5 and 44 healthy controls. In a prospective study we evaluated echocardiographic and laboratory parameters in 62 patients with CKD 2-4 for an average study period of 36±10...
Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular systolic function in rats adapted to hypoxia and exercise training
Hrdlička, Jaroslav ; Papoušek, František (advisor) ; Vybíral, Stanislav (referee)
- 4 - Abstract Adaptation to hypoxia or exercise training has cardioprotective effects against acute ischemic injury, but can potentially negatively influence heart function. Possible negative changes depend on the degree of hypoxia and exercise training intensity. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the effects of the specific adaptation protocols used. The ideal technique is echocardiography, which enables non-invasive, repeated and long-term measurements of the same individual allowing to study the development of changes in the course of adaptation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selected protocols of adaptation to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (corresponding to the altitude of 4,000 to 8,000 meters above sea level, for 15 weeks in total) and exercise training (running speed 30 m.min-1 for 60 min a day, 4 weeks in total) on the left ventricle geometry and systolic function in rats. We assessed basic echocardiographic parameters of the ventricle geometry and function such as fractional shortening, ejection fraction, stroke volume, cardiac output etc. The adaptation of rats to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia lead neither to the impairment of systolic function nor to the development of left ventricle hypertrophy compared to controls; signs of moderate hypertrophy were observed only...
Studium of the clinical impact of different forms of cardiac resynchronisation therapy by patients with chronic heart failure
Burianová, Lucie ; Kautzner, Josef (advisor) ; Janoušek, Jan (referee) ; Táborský, Miloš (referee)
Studium of the clinical impact of different forms of cardiac resynchronization therapy by patients with chronic heart failure MUDr. Lucie Burianová ABSTRACT: Introduction: Biventricular (BiV) pacing decreases mortality and improves quality of life of patients with severe heart failure. Haemodynamic and short time clinical studies suggest that isolated leftventricular pacing could have the same effect. Aims: Compare the effect of BiV and leftventricular pacing by subjects with dilated cardiomyopathy and severe heart failure with the attention to signs of dyssynchrony and remodelation of the left chamber. In methodical substudy compare the results of left chamber volumes and ejection fraction (EF LK) measured by CT angiography and 2-dimensional echocardiography with use of contrast agent (K-ECHO). Methods: Patients indicated for cardiac resynchronization therapy were randomized for either BiV or leftventricular pacing. After implantation of the device they were examinated clinically and by echocardiography every 3 months in the period of one year. Four years from the onset of the study the major adverse events in both groups were evaluated. The results of left chamber volumes and EF LK measured by K-ECHO and CT angiography were compared. Results: We enrolled 33 patients. We found clinical improvement in both...
Cardiac tolerance to oxygen deprivation: the effects of inhalational and intravenous anesthetics
Říha, Hynek ; Pirk, Jan (advisor) ; Bultas, Jan (referee) ; Geršl, Vladimír (referee)
Background: Surgical procedures are invariably accompanied by the use of inhalational and intravenous anesthetics. Both groups have strong influence on cardiovascular system by the interaction with myocardial oxygen supply/demand ratio and cardiomyocyte functions at the level of cell membranes, ion channels and regulatory enzymes. Aims: 1. To examine the effects of different isoflurane concentrations on the left ventricular (LV) dimensions and systolic function in the rat. 2. To examine the effects of isoflurane-induced myocardial preconditioning (APC) on the cardiac tolerance to ischemia- reperfusion (I-R) injury. 3. To compare the influence of anesthesia, based on ketamine- dexmedetomidine (KET-DEX), on the release of biochemical markers of myocardial injury and the early postoperative course with the anesthesia, based on sevoflurane-sufentanil (SEVO), in the patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: 1. We carried out transthoracic echocardiographic examination in the rats immobilized by 1.5-3% concentration of isoflurane. 2. After inducing APC by isoflurane (0.5 and 1 MAC), we evaluated ventricular arrhythmias during regional ischemia (45 min), induced by the occlusion of the left anterior descending artery, and subsequent reperfusion (60 min), using the model of...

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