National Repository of Grey Literature 12 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Treatment of lower extremity peripheral artery disease
Juhász, Jan ; Hrdina, Radomír (advisor) ; Pourová, Jana (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Student: Jan Juhász Supervisor: Prof. MUDr. Radomír Hrdina, CSc. Title of diploma thesis: Treatment of lower extremity peripheral artery disease The lower extremities ischemia is a disease caused most often by atherosclerosis during which the lumen in lower limb arteries becomes narrow. Its prevalence is increasing, especially in the developed countries. The disease can be asymptomatic and symptomatic. The symptoms are very unpleasant and decrease patient's quality of life. Advanced stages of the disease may be life threatening. Therefore, it is vital to timely and correctly diagnose the illness. During the therapy, it is possible to use pharmacological as well as non-pharmacological procedures, and, preferably, a combination of the two types of treatment. The pharmacotherapy can be divided into several parts. The prevention of atherosclerotic complications makes use of preventive measures and antiplatelet therapy to reduce the cardiovascular risk. The symptoms therapy focuses on improving patients' quality of life by prescribing the vasoactive medications cilostazol, naftidrofuryl or pentoxifylin. The critical limb ischemia therapy uses prostaglandin analogues alprostadil, iloprost, limaprost or...
The case study of physiotherapeutical treatment of the patient with a diagnosis of spastic paraparesis as a result of intradural meningioma
Novák, Jan ; Nechvátalová, Vendula (advisor) ; Kolářová, Kateřina (referee)
Author: Jan Novák Title of thesis: The case study of physiotherapeutical treatment of the patient with a diagnosis of spastic paraparesis as a result of intradural meningioma Objective: The aim of this bachelor thesis is to elaborate theoretical knowledge about a spastic paraparesis as a result of intradural meningioma. The theoretical knowledges and findings were used as a base for creating proper physioterapeutical treatment for patients with diagnosis mentioned above. Methods: The thesis is devided into two parts, the theoretical part is aimed to spinal and spinal cord anatomy, its physiology and patophysiology. Moreover information about spinal cord tumors, their symptomatology, diagnostics and treatment are included. The practical part contains the case study of patient and includes in kinesiological analysis, detailed description of all the therapeutic units, out kinesiological analysis and the conclusion. This part gains its practical findings from specialized experience at rehabilitation department in Fakultní nemocnice Královské Vinohrady in period from 21st January to 15th February, 2019. Results: Patient's health condition has been improved. We could observe better muscle strenght and range of motion of lower extremities and participation of core muscles. Moreover quality of sitting,...
Care about lower limbs in adulthood and in old age.
Introduction: Lower limbs are ones of the most strained body parts to which people do not pay much attention. Conscientious care is absolutely vital for their right functioning. Main aims of the thesis: This thesis is focused on gathering the knowledge and skills in care of lower limbs with people at their adult and old age; and on describing how the care is being performed with the target group of people. The next aim is to describe the health care from the podiatry nurse´s point of view. Methodology: A qualitative research by means of half-structured interviews was chosen as the main method of the survey. People at their adult and old age from České Budějovice were interviewed, as well as a nurse working in the centre of podiatry. Results of the thesis: The research proves some level of knowledge in the field of care of lower limbs both with the adult and elderly citizens. Both these groups of people take care of their lower limbs. The results show conscientiousness with washing their feet and drying them especially in the spaces between their toes. On the one hand, the interviewed people take care of their feet by means of using lotions and by means of pedicure. However, they do not go to see specialists in pedicure. On the other hand, the results show that this kind of skin care is not very regular. The care devoted to nails seems to be problematic, it is necessary to add some information about a more appropriate way of cutting them. The results of choosing shoes; when the choice is based mainly on a fashionable look of shoes; show a bigger need of repeated and more accurate education in this field. The impacts of improperly chosen shoes, irregular care of the lower limbs and also underestimating of prophylactic medical checks were all evident on our informants´ feet. The outputs gained in practice: The intermediate results of this thesis were presented at the Students Scientific Conference. The results of the research were used as the basis for a workshop intended for people at the adult and old age. A suggested educational mental map can be used as a practical tool.
Using kettlebell swing to increase the explosive strength of the lower limbs on volleyball players
This Bachelor thesis deals with question of training explosive power of lower limbs by volleyball players. Because of high important, jump is the main part of performance in volleyball, it´s necessary to keep development of explosive power in training thoroughly. In development of this power is used technique of deep squat with a barbell, in which upper limbs are inactive. However for jump, upper limbs are used as one of necessary parts so for this research kettlebell swing technique was used, as its involve upper limbs and the body generally. The theoretical part of this thesis contains a description of muscular power, its meaning and what affects it. The part also contains description of volleyball jump, its performing during the game and its overall contribution to player´s performance. In this part is description of kettlebell swing technique, why it´s suited to increasing explosive power of lower limbs and how its affect organism. Furthermore, there is a description of its correct execution and muscle involvement during the exercise. In the same way is written a chapter about the technique of deep squat with a barbell. Practical part was made as a qualitative research by using of six case casuistry, which contains input and output kinesiological analysis, tests of postural stabilization and postural reactibility by Kolář, tests of shortened muscles by Janda and tests of explosive power (K-test, absolute reach and standing long jump). In this part are also described methods, carrying out and results of examinations and tests that have been conducted in this research. Research takes three months, during which, tested subjects practiced particular techniques and then by their own training plans ordered by teams. In results there are described individual case casuistry, and at the end of each case casuistry is evaluation of each subject. In overall evaluation are compared results of tests of explosive power and other examination of all subjects. Results shows importance of correct execution and correct activation of deep stabilization system. During the research two subject were injured so their exercises and final results was affected. This Bachelor thesis could be used as a source of information for coaches or players, not only, volleyball and also it could be used for rehabilitation after injuries of lower limbs. Thanks to moves made during kettlebell swing, which comes from hip joints, aren´t knee joints loaded so much. After operations and necessary immobility occurs muscular atrophy, decentered position of lower limbs root joints and instability. Due this reason kettlebell swing technique could be used to increase muscle strength of lower limbs after injuries of meniscus, anterior cruciate ligament, joint ankle distortions and various traumatic injuries of lower limbs.
Motion analysis of lower extremity during squatting.
Varga, Pavel ; Vilímek, Miloslav (advisor) ; Jelen, Karel (referee)
Title: Motion analysis of lower extermity during squatting Aims: The aim of the thesis is to compare the squat without and with external load in a group of people who work under professional guidance and have experience with this movement, contrary to the people of the common population. Another objective will be the compasion this movement among men and women of the common population. In the theoretical part, the main objective is to describe the basic characteristic of the squat, describe the kinesiological and biomechanical findings and the risks of this movement on the locomotive apparatus. The experimental part will focus on the observation of the determined kinematic parameters of squats and their comparison in the mentioned set of persons. The results of the work should clarify the possible side effects of the squat. Methods: Kinematic analysis will be performed using Qualisys instrumentation. Infrared cameras accurately record and further perform a motion action through passive or active reflection markers. Data from the device will be processed in Microsoft Office Excel software and further evaluated statistically. Results: The results show that there are significant variations in the performance of the movement among groups of men actively engaged in squats under professional guidance and...
Orthosis for proprioceptive effect according to the principle of Nancy Hylton
Švikruhová, Andrea ; Černý, Pavel (advisor) ; Mikšíčková, Petra (referee)
Title: Orthosis for proprioceptive effect according to the principle of Nancy Hylton Objectives: The goal is to introduce proprioceptive orthosis based on the principle physiotherapist Nancy Hylton focused on explaining the various concepts, methods and procedures that relate to the proper indication of a particular type of equipment including materials recommendations. Also how to provide the successful application of the aids and the use for the in combination with the methods of physiotherapy. A comprehensive summary of the information could be used as teaching material suitable for various specializations. Methods: The main method is qualitative research through the collection and analysis of data involving foreign articles supplemented by formal and informal interview with an expert. Results: The work represents a theme and provides a basis for using the work as guides or training material. Keywords: proprioception, Nancy Hylton, cerebral palsy, children orthotics, lower extremities, DAFO
Bilateral Asymmetries of Lower Limb's Muscle Activity during Basic Movement of Cha-Cha-Cha dance
Vondrášek, David ; Sládek, Vladimír (advisor) ; Bigoni, Lucie (referee)
1 Abstract The purpose of this study was to describe the degree of bilateral asymmetry of lower limbs' muscle activity in the dance movement Cha-cha-cha and to determine the cause of bilateral asymmetries of lower limbs' muscle activity. Differences in muscle activity of contralateral lower limbs might be caused by the factor of bilaterally asymmetrical movement patterns, the factor of neural pathways or the factor of training. We hypotetize that comparing the direction of bilateral asymmetry in muscle activity between asymmetrical dance movement and its mirror alternative can determine the cause of bilateral asymmetry in muscle activity of lower limbs within the movement. We studied 14 volunteers (7 men, 7 women), all were actively dancing at competitive level. We tested the muscle activity of musculus vastus lateralis (VL), musculus biceps femoris (BF), musculus tibialis anterior (TA) a musculus gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) using surface electromyography. The dance movement Cha-cha-cha was bilaterally asymmetrical in the muscle activity of VL, TA and GL. Direction of lower limbs' muscle activity indicates, that TA, being a muscle responsible for foot movement, might be affected by the factor of neural pathways and brain laterality, while VL and GL might be more affected by the factor of training. Key...
The influence of running shoes on leg and pelvis kinematics during the stance phase of run
Novák, Čestmír ; Malá, Jitka (advisor) ; Kaplan, Aleš (referee)
Title: The influence of running shoes on leg and pelvis kinematics during the stance phase of run Objectives: The main objective of this thesis is to detect whether there exists a connection between the type of shoes used and changes in pelvis and legs kinematics in sagittal plane while running. Methology: For a purpose of the thesis research 12 active sportsmen (6 men and 6 women) participated in lab tests. Each of them was running on a tread mill for three time sequences - each counting 20 seconds - with changes in conditions applied as follows: barefoot run, minimalistic shod run, classic shod run. The 3D analysis was analysed using the Qualisys system (200 Hz). Data analytics was executed using the Qualisys Track Manager programme, where a comparative method was applied. Further statistical procedures ANOVA a Tukey test were performed in a programme called OriginPro 8. Key findings: The executed lab tests proved influence of running shoes on legs and pelvis kinematics during a stance phase of run. The main changes in kinematics were found in an ancle during touchdown, where the angle significantly increased while running barefoot rather than classic shod running. An analysis of pelvis kinematics parameters has proven that there are no changes in pelvis movements while running in different types...
Camparsion of crdiovascular responses to stress by one and both lower limbs on a bicycle ergometer.
Baxová, Dana ; Radvanský, Jiří (advisor) ; Procházka, Michal (referee)
This thesis deals with the stress on a bicycle ergometer. This theoretical part is a summary of findings on the response of the cardiovascular parameters, one-leg ergometry, description of Borg RPE scale and laterality of the lower limbs. The practical part is a comparison of the measured values of cardiovascular parameters. Furthermore was evaluating the subjective perception of the intensity of workload and compares the workload between the left and right limbs. Methodology and data processing: data collection for statistical processing was carried out from December 2013 to early April 2014. Research group included 16 probands. The results were statistically analyzed and described. Results and conclusions: There are differences in the values of cardivascular parameters at maximum workload between the two and one leg. At submaximal workload are not significant differences Keywords: cardiovascular parameters, one-legged ergometry, laterality, Borg RPE scale
Fusion and Analysis of Multidimensional Medical Image Data
Peter, Roman ; Flusser,, Jan (referee) ; Kozubek,, Michal (referee) ; Jan, Jiří (advisor)
Analýza medicínských obrazů je předmětem základního výzkumu již řadu let. Za tu dobu bylo v této oblasti publikováno mnoho výzkumných prací zabývajících se dílčími částmi jako je rekonstrukce obrazů, restaurace, segmentace, klasifikace, registrace (lícování) a fúze. Kromě obecného úvodu, pojednává tato disertační práce o dvou medicínsky orientovaných tématech, jež byla formulována ve spolupráci s Philips Netherland BV, divizí Philips Healthcare. První téma je zaměřeno na oblast zpracování obrazů subtrakční angiografie dolních končetin člověka získaných pomocí výpočetní X-Ray tomografie (CT). Subtrakční angiografie je obvykle využívaná při podezření na periferní cévní onemocnění (PAOD) nebo při akutním poškození dolních končetin jako jsou fraktury apod. Současné komerční metody nejsou dostatečně spolehlivé už v předzpracování, jako je například odstranění pacientského stolu, pokrývky, dlahy, apod. Spolehlivost a přesnost identifikace cév v subtrahovaných datech vedoucích v blízkosti kostí je v důsledku Partial Volume artefaktu rovněž nízká. Automatické odstranění kalcifikací nebo detekce malých cév doplňujících nezbytnou informaci o náhradním zásobení dolních končetin krví v případě přerušení hlavních zásobujících cév v současné době rovněž nesplňují kritéria pro plně automatické zpracování. Proto hlavním cílem týkající se tohoto tématu bylo vyvinout automatický systém, který by mohl současné nedostatky v CTSA vyšetření odstranit. Druhé téma je orientováno na identifikaci patologických změn na páteři člověka v CT obrazech se zaměřením na osteolytické a osteoblastické léze u jednotlivých obratlů. Tyto změny obvykle nastávají v důsledků postižení metastazujícím procesem rakovinového onemocnění. Pro detekci patologických změn je pak potřeba identifikace a segmentace jednotlivých obratlů. Přesnost analýzy jednotlivých lézí však závisí rovněž na správné identifikaci těla a zadních segmentů u jednotlivých obratlů a na segmentaci trabekulárního centra obratlů, tj. odstranění kortikální kosti. Během léčby mohou být pacienti skenováni vícekrát, obvykle s několika-mesíčním odstupem. Hodnocení případného vývoje již detekovaných patologických změn pak logicky vychází ze správné detekce patologií v jednotlivých obratlech korespondujících si v jednotlivých akvizicích. Jelikož jsou příslušné obratle v jednotlivých akvizicích obvykle na různé pozici, jejich fúze, vedoucí k analýze časového vývoje detekovaných patologií, je komplikovaná. Požadovaným výsledkem v tomto tématu je vytvoření komplexního systému pro detekci patologických změn v páteři, především osteoblastických a osteolytických lézí. Takový systém tedy musí umožnovat jak segmentaci jednotlivých obratlů, jejich automatické rozdělení na hlavní části a odstranění kortikální kosti, tak také detekci patologických změn a jejich hodnocení. Ačkoliv je tato disertační práce v obou výše zmíněných tématech primárně zaměřena na experimentální část zpracování medicínských obrazů, zabývá se všemi nezbytnými kroky, jako je předzpracování, registrace, dodatečné zpracování a hodnocení výsledků, vedoucími k možné aplikovatelnosti obou systému v klinické praxi. Jelikož oba systémy byly řešeny v rámci týmové spolupráce jako celek, u obou témat jsou pro některé konkrétní kroky uvedeny odkazy na doktorskou práci Miloše Malínského.

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