National Repository of Grey Literature 225 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
US lobbyists in the EU: significance of home country regulation for lobbying behaviour in a less regulated environment
Vilimovská, Lucia ; Knutelská, Viera (advisor) ; Plechanovová, Běla (referee)
Diploma thesis "US lobbyists in the EU: significance of home country regulation for lobbying behaviour in a less regulated environment" tackles the topic of lobbying in terms of comparing two differently regulated environments and the behaviour of lobbyists in these environments. In the introduction, the thesis analyses the current definitions and theoretical anchoring of the expert debate on lobbying, attempts to define this concept and to determine the basic research characteristics. The thesis attempts to describe why lobbying should be regulated and how is affected by lobbying transparency enhancement debate. Subsequently, the thesis describes and compares the regulation of lobbying in the United States and the European Union, while also taking into account international standards. The empirical part of the thesis is based on data provided by the American research center "Center for Responsive Politics". From this basic dataset, the companies and associations that lobby in the United States and the European Union, in particular, their basic documents and websites, are then researched based on established criteria. The aim of the thesis is to analyse whether companies and associations lobbying in a more regulated environment of the United States of America are transferring their 'taught'...
Candidate genes for behavioural adaptations in tropical and temperate birds
Křístková, Barbora ; Munclinger, Pavel (advisor) ; Macholán, Miloš (referee)
The use of candidate genes has become a widespread approach in the study of behavioral adaptations. Gene function is often maintained in very distant evolutionary lines. This approach allows us to extend knowledge about non-model species. I studied the influence of selection on candidate behavioral adaptation genes associated mainly with biorhythms. I was interested in comparing genetic variability between closely related species of songbirds from tropical and temperate zones. These environments differ mainly in the conditions stability. Tropical species live in very stable conditions with generally low seasonality, unlike temperate species. Timing of events of cirkanual cycle of temperate birds is essential because of the alternating of conditions of the environment. I therefore assumed a reduction in genetic variability in migrating temperate zone species compared to tropical species due to stabilizing selection. The study is based on analyzes of microsatellite loci in the exon region. I involved analysis of neutral microsatellites as a control for possible genetic variability reduction coming from different reasons than selection. Neutral microsatellites are expected to not be influenced by selection. In tropical species I found reduced genetic variability of neutral microsatellites. That might...
The role of commensalism on vertical activity in exploration tests: a comparison of 12 populations of the genus Acomys
Štolhoferová, Iveta ; Frynta, Daniel (advisor) ; Špinka, Marek (referee)
The objective of this work was to investigate whether there are differences between commensal and non-commensal populations of spiny mice (Acomys spp.). There is a good evidence that some populations of Acomys cahirinus have been commensal since the time of ancient Egypt, that is for at least 3,500 years. Therefore, it could be expected that some adaptation for a commensal way of life have evolved. To find out, I tested twelve populations of spiny mice in two types of open field test - a vertical test and a hole board test. In the vertical test, a wire mesh was added and offered to spiny mice to climb on. Since human settlements represent an environment with a new predation pressure as well as new hiding opportunities like those in heights above the ground, I hypothesized that commensal populations of A. cahirinus would (1) explore less on the ground and (2) prefer to spend more time on the wire mesh than the non-commensal populations. Results supported the first hypothesis as in both tests commensal spiny mice spent less time exploring on the ground than other populations. The second hypothesis, however, was not supported - all populations showed approximately equal interest in the wire mesh and commensal spiny mice did not spend more time on it compared to the others. Nevertheless, an overall...
Růst, genetické a morfologické charakteristiky různých populací okouna říčního (Perca fluviatilis) v intenzivní akvakultuře
GEBAUER, Tatyana
Zootechnical and behavioural traits can vary substantially among wild allopatric European perch populations. Choosing wild European perch population(s) showing higher growth rate, lower cannibalism and size heterogeneity with specific behavioural traits such as low aggressive interaction rate and homogeneous spatial distribution in rearing units are crucial for the establishment of the European perch broodstock and subsequent selective breeding programs. Therefore, knowledge of the zootechnical and behavioural traits relative to geographic origin supported by genetic analyses may ultimately help to overcome current challenges and bottlenecks of European perch aquaculture. Population differences in zootechnical and behavioural traits can be shaped by genetic differentiation, phenotypic plasticity, or by their combination. However, it is not clear whether the inter-population differences are genetically- or environmentally-induced. Therefore, we explored the zootechnical traits of geographically different European perch populations at larval- (two Finish, two Polish, two Slovakian, one Czech; Chapter II) and juvenile-stages (Polish, Czech, Slovakian; Chapter III) in the same standardized conditions reducing the environmental effect. Additionally, we provided a genetic-based assessment on four mitochondrial markers: cytochrome b, D-loop of control region, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome oxidase I (Chapters II, III). In Chapter IV, we observed behavioural traits of larvae and juveniles from two Finish and one French populations. According to obtained results, zootechnical and behavioural traits differed among allopatric populations of European perch. Moreover, the differences in zootechnical traits were mainly observed between most genetically differentiated populations (both Finish in Chapter II, and Polish in Chapter III). This could suggest a genetic basis of the observed growth differentiation and, consequently, a potential heritability of this pattern. Additionally, higher growth rate of northern populations could be partly attributed to behavioural traits as we found more cohesive and homogenous group structure in both Finish compared to French populations which, on the other hand, showed higher aggressive interactions. However, European perch larvae and juveniles from genetically lower- or un-differentiated populations (i.e. Polish, Slovakian and Czech in Chapter II and Slovakian and Czech in Chapter III) showed variations in zootechnical traits as well. The variation could be a consequence of different food intake, health status, pre-collection environment, transgenerational effect and usage of conservative mitochondrial markers, i.e. the lack of genetic differentiation among some populations should be further assessed by higher resolution analyses (e.g. microsatellites). Further studies are needed to assess the importance of these factors in geographic differentiation of aquaculture performance.
Mapping of behavior and attitudes toward the use of tobacco products among students from 3rd to 5th grades of primary schools in Aš: questionnaire survey
Syrovátková, Kateřina ; Kulhánek, Adam (advisor) ; Vanek, Marián (referee)
Background: Tobacco products are a global phenomenon, among the social and economic classes of the world population. Smoking is also one of the most common forms of risk behaviour among children and adolescents. According to world research, this is also a major problem among children and adolescents. In the ESPAD research, the Czech Republic belongs among the countries with the highest lifetime prevalence of tobacco products among children and adolescents. Objective: The aim of the work was to map the attitudes and use of tobacco products among pupils of the 3rd - 5th classes of selected primary schools in city Aš. Methods: This bachelor thesis research is based on a quantitative method. The research was carried out by a questionnaire survey. Data were analyzed in MS Excel using descriptive statistics methods. Respondents are represented in one third, fourth and fifth class from each primary school in Aš. Data were collected using pencil-paper questionnaire. Overall, 151 students participated in the survey, with an average age of 10.8 years. Results: The results show that 32.5% (n = 151) have at least one life experience with a tobacco product. Cigarettes (22) were placed first in use, followed by e-cigarettes (13). E-cigarettes are not considered by most respondents (82, 6 %) to be an attractive...
Typology of North Korea's Behavior: Analysis of the relations between the US and DPRK
Štroblová, Radka ; Hornát, Jan (advisor) ; Sehnálková, Jana (referee)
Since the accession of Donald J. Trump to the presidency, there have been many significant events that have affected the United States' relations with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea - from testing North Korean nuclear weapons, to verbal insults to both officials, to a historical meeting of the leaders of both Korean states in the demilitarized zone, a joint performance by South Korean and North Korean athletes at the Pyongyang Winter Olympics, to the historic Singapore Summit between Donald Trump and Kim Jong-un. However, the second meeting of both representatives in Hanoi ended prematurely - without signing the planned joint statement. Relations between the United States of America and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea are constantly developing. The main theme of the talks in the past was the complete, verifiable and irreversible denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula to ensure lasting peace and stability for the region. The North Korean nuclear program and efforts to reduce it have thus become a major issue in multilateral negotiations, with the Republic of Korea, China, Russia and Japan participating in addition to the United States and North Korea. North Korea, however, often sabotaged the talks and the period of cooperation was interrupted by provocations and hostile...
Ecology and behaviour of an enigmatic fossorial rodent, the giant root-rat (Tachyoryctes macrocephalus), endemic to the Afroalpine habitat in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia
The research in this thesis concerns with the ecology and behaviour of an endangered fossorial rodent, the giant root-rat (Tachyoryctes macrocephalus), in the Afroalpine ecosystem of the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia, and the results are discussed in relation with available ecological data on other fossorial/subterranean rodents. Firstly, this theses is focused on investigating the ecological role of the giant root-rat. The evaluation of root-rat's impact on various ecosystem features, in the first study, highly contributed to the knowledge not only about the species itself but also about the functioning of the ecosystem it inhabits. In fact, the results of the study indicated that the giant root-rat acts as an ecosystem engineer in the Afroalpine grasslands. Secondly, this thesis involves a pilot radio-telemetry study on the giant root-rat focusing on its temporal and spatial activity. Specifically, the results of the second study brought new light to giant root-rats' daily activity, its pattern, amount and seasonal change demonstrating the difference in activity patterns between strictly subterranean rodents and subterranean rodents with aboveground habits such as the giant root-rat. In the third study, we described the space-use patterns of the giant root-rat and revealed several trends in its spatial behaviour that can serve as a strategy to cope with the harsh and changeable environmental conditions in the Afroalpine ecosystem.
Behavior of the population in emergencies
Reiser, Jan ; Fiala, Miloš (advisor) ; Vilášek, Josef (referee)
Title: The principles of the behaviours of the population in emergencies Objectives: The aim of the thesis is to crate a coherent set of principles that should be followed by Czech citizens in selected extraordinary emergencies, such as natural and anomalous floods, chemical and nuclear accidents. Methods: The methods applied in writing this bachelor thesis are: searching and retrieval of available study sources, and subsequent compilation of said sources. Results: An overview of selected extraordinary events, such as natural and anomalous floods, chemical and nuclear accidents. The description of the principles of behaviour of the population, which are typical for each mentioned situation. Keywords: Principles, behavior, population, event, IZS
Chování vodních organismů a kontaminace vodních toků? nechtěná léčba deprese a nespavosti u raků
MAREŠ, Josef
This bachelor thesis evaluates the possible effects of pharmaceutically active compounds on non-target fresh water organisms and the risks connected with them. As model organism was used parthenogenetically reproducing non-native marbled crayfish, which were exposed to a mix of five commonly used drugs and one illicit drug - tramadol, citalopram, sertraline, venlafaxine, oxazepam and methamphetamine. The concentration was 1 microgram.l-1 for each of the tested compounds. The main part of the experiment was based on monitoring the behaviour of the exposed and control group of crayfish in arenas with or without shelter. Prior experiment crayfish were exposed for three-weeks to the mixture of compounds mentioned above. The results were analysed in the programme EthoVisionXT and later also statistically evaluated. In the system with available shelters the observed parameters (distance moved and activity) showed significant differences, where the exposed group walked significantly larger distances and was considerably more active than the control group. Exposed group also spent significantly more time outside the shelter. The results in the system without shelter were almost the opposite. The distance moved, velocity and activity were significantly different. The exposed crayfish showed considerably lower activity, velocity and moved shorter distances. The results of this experiment prove that the mixture of monitored compounds can have a significant impact on the behaviour of non-target fresh water organisms. The compounds had a softening effect and can affect sensory receptors of the exposed crayfish, which can have a significant impact on the populations in open waters.
Vliv herbicidu s-metolachloru na raná vývojová stádia raka mramorovaného
S-metolachlor is a substance belonging to the group of herbicides, widely used in agriculture to protect crops. This substance with the chemical composition C15H22CINO2 and is used as the pre-emergent herbicides to control unwanted weeds. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of s-metolachlor on mortality, behavior, growth, ontogenetic development, oxidative stress level and activity of antioxidant enzymes of early developmental stages of marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis). The effect of s-metolachlor was evaluated on the basis of embryo-larval toxicity test. Early developmental stages of crayfish were exposed to three concentrations of s-metolachlor, 1.1 micrograms/l, 11 micrograms/l and 110 micrograms/l for 45 days. All tested concentrations significant showed higher mortality, delay of ontogenetic development, lower growth and changes in behavior (total movement distance and movement speed). Moreover, significant decrease in catalase, glutathione-s-transferase, superoxide dismutase concentration, and reduced glutathione levels at the two higher test concentrations (11 micrograms/l and 110 micrograms/l) of s-metolachlor were observed. No significant changes in oxidative damage (TBARS levels) were observed in all the tested groups. Based on the results of this study, early developmental stages of marbled crayfish can be recommended as suitable organisms for toxicity test and their use for biomonitoring of the aquatic environment by herbicides.

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