National Repository of Grey Literature 24 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Influence of pH on Extraction of Matter from Biochar-Soil Complex
Jakubčeková, Kristína ; Enev, Vojtěch (referee) ; Kalina, Michal (advisor)
Biochar is one of the possible solutions to improve the soil fertility, therefore it is necessary to investigate both its composition and the impact on the soil under various conditions. The aim of this bachelor thesis is to focus on the description of the influence of pH on the amount and type of substances (molecules, ions) that are leached from the biochar into the soil and thus consequently influence its properties. As a soil model it was chosen cambisol which is the most widespread soil in the Czech Republic. The selected pH values have been defined in such a way to cover the pH range that is common for various soil types in natural conditions. In the experimental part of this thesis the extracts from the used sample of biochar and soil were characterized first. These characteristics obtained in this way were subsequently compared with the data obtained for the biochar-soil complex extracts that was obtained after a defined period of cultivation of the mixture. For the characterization of extracts the basic physico-chemical methods (pH, conductivity, elemental and thermogravimetric analysis, UV-VIS) and also the analysis of leached ions and molecules by means of ICP/OES, GC-MS were used. Evaluated experimental data show that under the condition of cultivation experiments, the influence of biochar was observed only on the basic physico-chemical characteristics of the soil (mainly pH). On the other hand, there was no significant tendency of the impact of biochar on the representation of selected elements and on the content of organic matter in the soil. Long-term biochar-soil cultivation experiments could be a suitable solution.
Analysis of biochar aqueous extracts by separation methods
Tučková, Dominika ; Čáslavský, Josef (referee) ; Mravcová, Ludmila (advisor)
This master's thesis deals with the analysis of biochar extracts by separation methods. All analyzed biochar was produced from waterworks sludge by microwave pyrolysis. The aim of the thesis is the optimization of the sample preparation method and its analysis in a laboratory environment. With the ever-growing world population, the problem of a sustainable economy in both agriculture and waste management is becoming increasingly urgent. This fact has led most countries to consider promoting the so-called Circular Economy. The use of sewage sludge as a feedstock for biochar production is perfectly in line with this strategy. So far, however, the short term and the long term benefits and risks of using biochar have not been sufficiently described. Potentially hazardous organic substances were extracted from the biochar extracts by three techniques: liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, and solid- phase micro-extraction. The obtained samples were analyzed using the GS-MS/TOF method. The individual methods were compared. Several biochar samples from WWTP Brno and WWTP Drahovice were selected and analyzed to verify the suitability of the selected sample analysis method.
Removal efficiency of selected drugs by various sorptive materials from water
Štofko, Jakub ; Mravcová, Ludmila (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This thesis deals with sorption of selected drugs from model water by various sorption materials. Contamination of water resources by the pharmaceutical industry is a major problem today. Wastewater treatment plants, whose technological processes are unable to completely remove them, have a significant share in the penetration of these substances into the environment. At present, attention is paid to alternative materials that are capable of eliminating these substances. One of the potential sorption materials is biochar as one of the main pyrolysis products. This work focused on the assessment of the sorption properties of the different types of biochar and commercially used active charcoal. The sorption properties of the individual materials were compared with respect to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory substance ibuprofen and the sulphonamide antibiotic sulfamethoxazole. The results of vial experiments were analysed on a liquid chromatograph with mass detection.
Ecotoxicological assessment of biochar from sewage sludge
Kotzurová, Iveta ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
The aim of this diploma thesis is to assess the ecotoxicological effect of biochar produced from sewage sludge. In case of application of biochar to agricultural land, both the soil and aquatic ecosystem may be affected therefore contact and aquatic tests were chosen to assess the ecotoxicological effects. Representatives of soil invertebrates were earthworms Eisenia fetida; Daphnia magna and Artemia salina were chosen from aquatic animals and terrestrial plants were represented by Lactuca sativa, Sinapis alba and Allium cepa. The results of contact tests point out how ecosystem could be negatively affected by biochar dose. Through aqueous extract were shown differences in sensitivity of individual organisms in aquatic tests. Dried sewage sludge was found to be the biggest burden for all tested organisms. The pelletized biochar with the addition of an additive showed the lowest negative effect on tested organisms.
Determination of organic compounds in biochar produced by microwave torrefaction of biomass
Meindl, Jiří ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Mravcová, Ludmila (advisor)
The thesis is focused on a determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in dried pelletized sewage sludge and pelletized biochar. Biochars were made in mild conditions by microwave torrefaction of prepared sewage sludge. There were analyzed and quantified the 34 of standardized PAHs compounds in two series. The first serie, also called “Sada 1”, has been aimed at comparison of extraction methods for the chosen sample of sewage sludge and the sample of biochar. In serie “Sada 1”, there were compared efficiencies of chosen type of solvent or solvent mixture by comparison of yields for 34 standardized analytes in a sample of biochar and a sample of sewage sludge. There were compared also to total yields of PAHs and to number of quantified compounds in analyzed samples. The most reliable extraction method has been used for the next analyses of samples in the second serie called “Sada 2”. In Sada 2, there were compared different samples of the same type (e.g. biochar, sludge). The origin of sewage sludge (small or big sewage treatment plant expressed as PE) and used additives (cellulose, chaff, hay) as modificators for torrefaction process were variables for different type of sample. The results of analysis were identification of the most suitable sewage sludge and additive to be used as modificator for microwave torrefaction process. The main goal of correctly chosen sludge and additive was to minimize production of PAH’s during torrefaction and in samples of biochar.
Using a modified biocharge to capture ammonia from the exhaust air
Kozlíková, Nikola ; Innemanová, Petra (advisor) ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (referee)
In my work I have dealt with the comparison of different types of biochar based solid materials, which could serve as a filling for ammonia capture filters. Three samples of biochar prepared from anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge were used to test the most suitable material at temperatures of 200 ř C, 400 ř C and 600 ř C, 3 samples of biochar prepared from oak wood at temperatures of 260 ř C, 400 ř C and 600 ř C, 2 samples of biochar prepared from a mixture of sewage sludge and wood chips pre-dried in a pilot scale biological drying plant, dried anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge and charcoal. The materials were impregnated with 50% sulfuric acid solution. They were then exposed to ammonia vapors for the time needed to complete the reaction on the surface of the impregnated material. Due to the chemical reaction, ammonium sulfate is produced, which can be used as a fertilizer in agriculture. It is known that the addition of biochar has a positive effect on the soil. In the case of a combination of biochar and ammonium sulphate, this may be an interesting soil additive. It could be an alternative to so-called scrubbers, where ammonia is trapped by bubbling dilute sulfuric acid. Transportation and application of the ammonium sulphate solution thus formed is not economically advantageous. To...
Biochar Preparation in Quality of Activated Carbon via Pyrolysis of Hemp Waste
Šrámek, V. ; Staf, M. ; Pohořelý, Michael
The paper describes the preparation of adsorbents with the properties of activated carbon from biomass waste. Prime feedstock are hemp stems and a referential material is hardwood. The preparation is divided in two phases. The first phase includes pyrolysis in the temperature range 450-850 °C in the horizontal furnace and in the second phase the pyrolysed material is activated with steam and carbon dioxide in a vertical reactor. Finally, biochar was analyzed and relevant properties including BET surface and pore size distribution were determined to appoint suitable operational conditions for the biochar production in quality of activated carbon.\n
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Energetic use of wastewater sludge and microwave pyrolysis products
Šimek, Radim ; Ševčík, Jan (referee) ; Hlavínek, Petr (advisor)
The diploma thesis is focused on the energy utilization of sewage sludge before and after microwave pyrolysis process. The first part of the thesis deals with sludge management, treatment of sludge and its subsequent use or disposal. In the second part of the thesis prepared and modified samples of sludge from WWTP 1 and WWTP 2 are subjected to microwave pyrolysis process. Subsequently, samples are taken for analyzes to determine the total organic carbon, the specific surface area, the heavy metal content and the calorific values. The resulting data was processed in Microsoft Office Excel and presented at work. At the end of the thesis two case studies are then proposed for a specific design of the conceptual location of microwave pyrolysis for the sludge drying process and the drying process of the sewage sludge in the direct combustion boiler room.
SMV-2018-18: Scanning electron microscopy of biochars and soil mixtures
Petrov, Michal ; Vaškovicová, Naděžda ; Krzyžánek, Vladislav
The structure of the surface of selected Biochars (the dried charred pyrogenic residues of organic matter) and comminute soil mixture was analysed by high-resolution scanning electron microscope. The level of interaction among soil particles with inner face and surface structures of biochar was estimated.
Laboratory Pyrolysis Experiments of Barley and Wheat Pelletized Straw Samples, Sludge and Biomass Pellet Samples.
Pohořelý, Michael ; Skoblia, S. ; Beňo, Z. ; Hartman, Miloslav
In the report there are results of laboratory pyrolysis analysis of barley and wheat pelletized straw samples and sludge and biomass pellet samples.

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