National Repository of Grey Literature 9 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Hydride generation of bismuth for atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrometry.
Kolrosová, Marta ; Musil, Stanislav (advisor) ; Nováková, Eliška (referee)
This master's thesis deals with the optimization of conditions of chemical hydride generation (HG) of bismuth, its atomization and detection by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Two types of atomizers were used for atomization of volatile species, a miniature diffusion flame for AAS as well as for AFS and a flame-in-gas-shield atomizer for AFS. At first, the parameters of HG in a flow injection mode were optimized - the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the concentration of sodium borohydride and the volume of the reaction coil. Subsequently, the atomization conditions were optimized using both atomizers. The parameters optimized were hydrogen fraction, total gas flow rate and observation height. Due to the more complicated construction of the FIGS atomizer, more parameters were studied, such as the oxygen flow rate through the capillary and the flow rate of shielding argon required for shielding the free atoms. A special part of the thesis dealt with the optimization of the optical path of the atomic fluorescence spectrometer, the selection of an interference filter and the optimization of a power supply of an electrodeless discharge lamp. It was found that under optimum conditions of generation, atomization and detection excellent detection limits...
UV-photochemical generation of cadmium volatile compounds with atomic spectrometric detection
Horová, Kateřina ; Nováková, Eliška (advisor) ; Červený, Václav (referee)
The aim of this master's thesis has been to develop and optimize the method of UV- photochemical vapor generation of cadmium volatile compounds for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Two configurations with different materials wrapped around the low-pressure mercury vapor lamp were tested. I experimentally determined optimal conditions for both systems; the optimalized parametres included selection of photochemical reagent and its concentration, flow rate of liquids and gases, and the lenghth of the reaction coil. After finding the optimal parametres I determined the figures of merit of the method. I found from the measured data that UV-photoreactor with the quartz capillary provided lower limits of detection and thus was more suitable for generation of cadmium volatile compounds. With this arrangement and using the ferrous sulphate heptahydrate as the chemical modifier I obtained limit of detection 2,0 µg·l-1 , limit of determination 7,0 µg·l-1 , linear dynamic rate LOD-50 µg·l-1 and repeatibility 0,35 %. I also carried out the interference study in my thesis and determined the generation effeciency of cadmium volatile compounds. The interference study shows the influence of mineral acids (HCl, H2SO4, HNO3), their salts (NaNO2, NaNO3) and transition metals (Co, Ni, Cu). Based on literature review I also...
UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds of selenium and tellurium
Nováková, Eliška
The presented thesis deals with UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds of Se and Te from various species. The aim of the project was to expand the current state of knowledge by the application of photocatalytic reduction of higher oxidation states of Se and Te for the speciation analysis based on UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds. The first step of the study was the assembly of the apparatus for the photocatalysed UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds. The material of reactor and the whole experimental set-up were based on literature survey and previous research done in our research group. Experiments were directed towards finding the optimum conditions for generation of volatile compounds of selected model elements Se and Te. Se was studied as the element most commonly determined by the UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds. Conversely, Te was selected as a model analyte representing elements forming less stable volatile compounds. The second part was the application of the optimised method of photocatalysed UV- photochemical generation of volatile Se compound to the determination of Se in water matrices, liquid certified reference materials and also samples of dietary supplements. TiO2/UV-photochemical generation was also successfully modified to...
Miniature plasma DBD atomizer for AAS and AFS
Straka, Marek ; Kratzer, Jan (advisor) ; Hrdlička, Aleš (referee)
Five designs of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) atomizers have been constructed and optimized employing arsane as a model analyte. The individual DBD designs differed from each other in the style of electrode attachment, electrode shape and area. An externally heated quartz tube atomizer and another DBD atomizer design that have been studied before were used as reference. All the atomizer designs studied including the reference atomizers were found compatible with detection by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) giving comparable sensitivity of 0.44 s ng-1 As and detection limit around 0.2 ng ml-1 As under optimum atomization conditions. However, significant differences in optimum operation conditions were found among the DBD designs in terms of the applied voltage depending strongly on the style of electrode attachment. The design with metal strip electrodes glued to a quartz body requires more than 14 kV to be operated. The design with sputtered electrodes of the same shape can reach the same sensitivity with 8.5 kV. Selected DBD designs have been proven to be compatible also with other spectrometric detectors such as atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) reaching detection limit 0.05 ng ml-1 As or atomic emission spectrometry (AES) with detection limit of 30 ng ml-1 As showing the...
Development of Instrumentation and Methodology for Elemental and Speciation Analysis of Arsenic Based on Hydride Generation and on Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometric Detection
Marschner, Karel ; Dědina, Jiří (advisor) ; Kanický, Viktor (referee) ; Spěváčková, Věra (referee)
(EN) The presented dissertation is devoted to hydride generation from arsenic species and its application for speciation analysis based on atomic fluorescence detection. Hydride generation from toxicologically relevant arsenic species was optimized in order to achieve a 100% efficiency. The resulted experimental setup was subsequently used for speciation analysis of arsenic in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography with detection by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The accuracy of the developed method was verified by comparative analyses of human urine samples collected from five individuals with an independent reference method. The cleavage of As-C bond during the reaction of methylated arsenic species with tetrahydridoborate(1-) (THB) in acidic media was studied in detail. Pronounced demethylation of methylated arsenic species was found during the reaction of THB with HCl, H2SO4, and HClO4 while hydride generation from CH3COOH or TRIS buffer after prereduction with L- cysteine resulted in the exclusive formation of the corresponding hydrides. Firstly, this phenomenon can endanger the accuracy of arsenic speciation which is based on hydride generation of substituted arsanes. Secondly, the more complex arsenic species can be converted to the hydride. That was demonstrated on hydride...
UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds of selenium and tellurium
Nováková, Eliška ; Hraníček, Jakub (advisor) ; Komárek, Josef (referee) ; Šíma, Jan (referee)
The presented thesis deals with UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds of Se and Te from various species. The aim of the project was to expand the current state of knowledge by the application of photocatalytic reduction of higher oxidation states of Se and Te for the speciation analysis based on UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds. The first step of the study was the assembly of the apparatus for the photocatalysed UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds. The material of reactor and the whole experimental set-up were based on literature survey and previous research done in our research group. Experiments were directed towards finding the optimum conditions for generation of volatile compounds of selected model elements Se and Te. Se was studied as the element most commonly determined by the UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds. Conversely, Te was selected as a model analyte representing elements forming less stable volatile compounds. The second part was the application of the optimised method of photocatalysed UV- photochemical generation of volatile Se compound to the determination of Se in water matrices, liquid certified reference materials and also samples of dietary supplements. TiO2/UV-photochemical generation was also successfully modified to...
Optimization of generation and atomization of arsines for speciation analysis by atomic fluorescence spectrometry
Marschner, Karel ; Dědina, Jiří (advisor) ; Komárek, Josef (referee)
Speciation analysis of arsenic based on selective hydride generation and detection by atomic fluorescence spectrometry have been studied in this work. It was found that under optimum conditions of atomization in the flame in gas shield atomizer, sensitivity was approximately twice higher and detection limit was about four times lower compared to miniature diffusion flame, which is a standard atomizer for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The conditions to generate hydrides from both inorganic forms of the arsenic, i.e. from arsenite and arsenate, with the same efficiency have been found in the batch arrangement, by using 1 mol dm-3 hydrochlorid acid and 1% solution of tetrahydridoborate. To determine only trivalent form, TRIS buffer at pH 6.00 was used together with 1% sodium tetrahydridoborate. The detection limits found for inorganic arsenic, i.e. for arsenite and arsenate, respectively, were 15 ng dm-3 and 9 ng dm-3 . It was found that in the batch arrangement under these conditions it is possible to generate corresponding hydrides methylarsonate and dimethylarsonate with the same efficiency as from the inorganic form. Finally, it was found when slightly changing the gas-liquid separator design in order to introduce the mixture of tetrahydridoborate with hydrochloric acid to the bottom of the...
Arsenic speciation analysis by HPLC postcolumn hydride generation and detection by atomic fluorescence spectrometry
Marschner, Karel ; Musil, Stanislav ; Rychlovský, P. ; Dědina, Jiří
The aim of this contribution is to present a new method of hydride generation that enables to generate arsines from iAs , iAs , MMA and DMA in a flow injection mode with the same efficiency and in the next step connection of this hydride generator with HPLC column.
Arsenic speciation analysis by hydride generation – cryotrapping – atomic fluorescence spectrometry with flame-in-gas-shield atomizer
Svoboda, Milan ; Musil, Stanislav ; Matoušek, Tomáš ; Rychlovský, P. ; Dědina, Jiří
The main target of this work was further improvement of detection limits in the method of arsenic speciation analysis of tri- and pentavalent human metabolites in complex biological matrices. The method combines selective hydride generation with preconcentration and subsequent separation of substituted arsines in a cryogenic trap.

Interested in being notified about new results for this query?
Subscribe to the RSS feed.