National Repository of Grey Literature 43 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Coagulation of organic matter produced by phytoplankton
Načeradská, Jana
This dissertation thesis focuses on the removability of algal organic matter (AOM) by coagulation during water treatment and also on the influence of AOM on the coagulation of other substances present in source water. Special emphasis is put on the description of coagulation mechanisms. The effectiveness of AOM removal by coagulation was investigated by coagulation tests performed with optimized doses of coagulants (aluminium or ferric sulphate) under different pH values. Peptides and proteins contained in cellular organic matter of cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa were used in the experiments since they have been previously reported to disturb the coagulation process. Moreover, peptides and proteins underwent coagulation experiments together with kaolin particles, representing clay particles in turbid waters, in both the presence and absence of coagulants to investigate the effect of AOM on the coagulation of turbid waters. To enable the description of coagulation mechanisms, AOM were characterised in terms of charge, functional groups, molecular weight and ability to form dissolved complexes with coagulant metals. The experimental results demonstrated that the removability of peptides and proteins is greatly dependent on pH value and on the properties of the involved particles or molecules....
Nanoparticles formed by complexes of copolymers with low-molar-mass compounds
Vojtová, Jana
This thesis is focused on mixed systems of various copolymers (double hydrophilic block and gradient polyelectrolytes, hydrophobic graft copolymers) and low-molar-mass compounds (sodium dodecyl sulfate as a representative of a ionic surfactant or superparamagnetic iron oxides in the form of nanocrystals). The electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in the studied systems in aqueous solutions leading to aggregation behavior and to the formation of co-assembled nanoparticles were investigated by combination of scattering and microscopy techniques, including light, X-ray and neutron scattering, electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Prediction of the Effect of Mutation on Protein Solubility
Velecký, Jan ; Martínek, Tomáš (referee) ; Hon, Jiří (advisor)
The goal of the thesis is to create a predictor of the effect of a mutation on protein solubility given its initial 3D structure. Protein solubility prediction is a bioinformatics problem which is still considered unsolved. Especially a prediction using a 3D structure has not gained much attention yet. A relevant knowledge about proteins, protein solubility and existing predictors is included in the text. The principle of the designed predictor is inspired by the Surface Patches article and therefore it also aims to validate the results achieved by its authors. The designed tool uses changes of positive regions of the electric potential above the protein's surface to make a prediction. The tool has been successfully implemented and series of computationally expensive experiments have been performed. It was shown that the electric potential, hence the predictor itself too, can be successfully used just for a limited set of proteins. On top of that, the method used in the article correlates with a much simpler variable - the protein's net charge.
The role of proteostatic mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases
Zezulová, Kristýna ; Vodička, Petr (advisor) ; Marková, Vendula (referee)
Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) plays an important role in maintaining normal cell function and viability. Neurons are particularly vulnerable to proteostasis dysregulation, resulting in damage, dysfunction, and neuronal death, as manifested in many neurodegenerative diseases. One of them is Huntington disease, hereditary neurodegeneration with autosomal dominant inheritance. Expansion of the CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene is translated into an abnormally long glutamine chain in huntingtin protein, leading to disruption of neuronal proteostasis. The primary affected area of the brain is the striatum of the basal ganglia. Disease is progressive, the onset of symptoms usually occurs in adulthood, and after many years leads to the death of the patient. Despite intensive research, disease pathology is still not fully understood, treatment is still only symptomatic and new studies, together with a deeper understanding, also raise many new questions. Through the complexity of the issue, the study of proteostasis in neurodegeneration can bring not only possible implications for therapy, but also could go deeper into the understanding of stress, memory or aging processes.
Generalization of LOD2 building models using the aggregation method
Měchurová, Kristýna ; Brůha, Lukáš (advisor) ; Pokorný, Tomáš (referee)
Generalization of LOD2 building models using the aggregation method Abstract The thesis proposes and implements a method of 3D building models aggregation. The procedure achieves global optima by the means of mathematic optimization. Buildings are aggregated according to similarity characteristics typical for LOD2, e. g. roof type. Aggregation process is driven by minimalization of volume changes and of the aggregate count. The optimization problem was implemented as a Python script with optional parameters to meet custom demands of a wide range of users. Input data models of buildings are created by the method of procedural modelling. Its outcome is further restructured into form of continuous blocks. Finally, the visualization procedure is designed and implemented to illustrate the results of optimized aggregation of 3D building models. Keywords: 3D GIS, generalization, aggregation, mathematical optimization, procedural modelling
Adaptive Sampling of Input Packets Implemented in FlowMon Probe
Kaštovský, Petr ; Martínek, Tomáš (referee) ; Kořenek, Jan (advisor)
There is a FlowMon probe being developed in a Libeouter project that is used for passive network measurements. The probe has better stability and accuracy than sofware based solutions even under a heavy load or network attack. To guarantee a precision of results there is a need to data reduction to prevent measuring system overload. There are few kinds of data reduction. Method used in the FlowMon probe is called sampling. Adaptive sampling unit sets the sampling rate (rate of processed and discarded packets) according to actual state of measured network.
New insights on tau protein aggregation and the spreading of tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease
Pribiš, Matej ; Růžička, Jiří (advisor) ; Telenský, Petr (referee)
More than 100 years have passed since the original description of a "peculiar" disease of cerebral cortex by Dr. Alzheimer. Lots of discoveries on this disease and its cellular and molecular correlates has been done since then, the disease, however, up to this day resists most of the causal attempts of treatment. The major component of silver stained tangled bundles of fibrils that Alzheimer observed under his microscope has been identified as a microtubule associated protein tau and it has been shown to be a crucial part of many other neurodegenerative disorders, which were collectively named tauopathies. However, even after such a long time, the exact role of tau in neuronal physiology and pathology remains rather obscure. According to the latest research, it even seems that some of the widely accepted truths might require more closer observation and validation. The aim of this thesis is to sum up and clarify the important aspects of the mechanism of tau aggregation, the basic factors that influence it and its transcellular movement as a mechanism of pathology spreading. Keywords: aggregation, pathology spreading, tauopathy, Tau protein iii
Coagulation of organic matter produced by phytoplankton
Načeradská, Jana
This dissertation thesis focuses on the removability of algal organic matter (AOM) by coagulation during water treatment and also on the influence of AOM on the coagulation of other substances present in source water. Special emphasis is put on the description of coagulation mechanisms. The effectiveness of AOM removal by coagulation was investigated by coagulation tests performed with optimized doses of coagulants (aluminium or ferric sulphate) under different pH values. Peptides and proteins contained in cellular organic matter of cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa were used in the experiments since they have been previously reported to disturb the coagulation process. Moreover, peptides and proteins underwent coagulation experiments together with kaolin particles, representing clay particles in turbid waters, in both the presence and absence of coagulants to investigate the effect of AOM on the coagulation of turbid waters. To enable the description of coagulation mechanisms, AOM were characterised in terms of charge, functional groups, molecular weight and ability to form dissolved complexes with coagulant metals. The experimental results demonstrated that the removability of peptides and proteins is greatly dependent on pH value and on the properties of the involved particles or molecules....
Magnetically assembled nanoparticle structures and their effect on mechanical response of polymer nanocomposites
Zbončák, Marek ; Khúnová,, Viera (referee) ; Crosby, Alfred (referee) ; Jančář, Josef (advisor)
Magneticky řízené samo-uspořádávání v polymerních nanokompozitech je studováno v této dizertační práci. Strukturování polymerních nanokompozitů pomocí relativně slabých magnetických polí (B=0-50 mT) bylo prokázáno jako praktická metoda pro kontrolu jejích nano a mikrostruktury. Vliv intenzity magnetického pole, množství nanočástic, viskozity a času uspořádávání na výslednou strukturu byl studován v různých systémech jako fotopolymer, polyuretan nebo koloidně dispergované nanočástice v acetonu s malým množstvím rozpuštěného polymeru. Samo-uspořádané struktury – bez aplikace vnějšího magnetického pole vykazují vícekrokovou agregaci nanočástic do uskupení s komplexním tvarem. Magnetické interakce byly označené jako odpovědné za agregaci nanočástic v samo-uspořádaných systémech pomocí výpočtů energii mezi-částicových interakcí. S rostoucím magnetickým polem, magnetické nanočástice jsou rychle uspořádané do jednorozměrných částicových řetězů s vysokým aspektním poměrem a homogenní orientaci v polymerní matrici. S prodluženým časem uspořádaní, tyto struktury postupně rostou z malých submikrometrových struktur do velkých mikroskopických super struktur. Táto metoda vykazuje velký potenciál pro kontrolovanou přípravu široké škály struktur v polymerních nanokompozitech vhodných pro technologické aplikace a také pro fundamentální studie. Magneticky uspořádané polymerní nanokompozity vykazují značnou směrovou anisotropii tuhosti kompozitu nad jeho skelným přechodem přičemž, pod skelným přechodem systému není pozorován žádný efekt. Podélně orientované struktury vykazují větší příspěvek k tuhosti kompozitů. Efektivnost vyztužení vykazuje teplotně závislý průběh a maximum je pozorováno přibližně 60 °C nad skelným přechodem. Struktura magneticky uspořádaného polymerního nanokompozitu byla popsána vícero-úrovňovým hierarchickým modelem materiálu. Mikromechanika byla využitá k popisu směrově závislého vyztužení polymerních nanokompozitů a k popisu teplotně závislé tuhosti hybridních struktur složených z nanočástic a polymeru. Schopnost nést napětí, deformovat se a nenulová tuhost hybridních struktur je odpovědná za vyztužení polymerních nanokompozitů. Přítomnost polymerních přemostění mezi nanočásticemi, které přenášejí napěti skrze magnetické struktury je označená jako nezbytná pro mechanickou odezvu polymerních nanokompozitů a pro tuhost hybridních struktur.
Antipredatory function of aggregations in aposematic prey
Mitlenerová, Barbora ; Exnerová, Alice (advisor) ; Pipek, Pavel (referee)
Aggregation is a very important strategy of many organisms. It occurs in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Besides other functions (foraging, thermoregulation, maintenance of humidity protection against dessication, epigamic, hibernation or aestivation), aggregation also carries out antipredatory function. Aggregation of animals may reduce the risk of attacks by predators and prey mortality. Reduction of the attack probability might be caused by the predator confusion effect, lower risk of prey detectability, dilution effect, more effective vigilance of aggregation members and increase of strength of the warning signal produced by aposematic prey. Experimental studies, focused on the role of aposematic coloration in antipredatory functions use usually birds as predators. There are many kinds of insects, such as true bugs or mealworms, or artificial prey used as a prey in the experiments. The combination of aposematic signals and gregariousness of prey might have a significant influence on both probability and frequency of predator attacks. The length of predator's hesitation before the attack and the attack intensity used on attack may differ according to the coloration and presentation (gregariousness) of the prey and therefore the chance of survival varies. Aggregation may also improve...

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