National Repository of Grey Literature 268 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Biochemistry and pathobiochemistry of phylloquinone and menaquinones
Dunovská, Kateřina ; Klapková, Eva (advisor) ; Uřinovská, Romana (referee) ; Skoumalová, Alice (referee)
Vitamin K belongs to the family of fat-soluble vitamins, which is not determinated in clinical laboratories. It is a cofactor necessary for posttranslational γ-carboxylation of glutamyl residues in selected proteins such as the osteocalcin, and procoagulation factors II, VII, IX, X. Vitamin K deficient individuals appear to have more undercarboxylated proteins, which are functionally defective. Lack of this vitamin has been associated with risk of developing osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this work was to develop and validate the HPLC method and the LC-MS/MS method for determination of three vitamin K's forms - vitamin K1, MK-4 and MK-7 in serum. After successful validation of both methods, patient samples and healthy population samples were measured. There were measured 350 patient samples by HPLC method. These samples were divided into two groups - patients with diagnostic of osteoporosis and patients without osteoporosis. We measured 946 samples by LC-MS/MS method. Samples were divided into groups: patients with osteoporosis, patients without osteoporosis, healthy population, patients with osteopenia and patients with cystic fibrosis. The reference range of vitamin K in healthy population was obtained by LC-MS/MS method. The next aim was to compare the effectiveness of...
HPLC analysis of selected isoflavones
Nováková, Lidmila ; Kubíček, Vladimír (advisor) ; Lázníčková, Alice (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biophysics and Physical Chemistry Author: Lidmila Nováková Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kubíček, CSc. Title of thesis: HPLC analysis of selected isoflavones The diploma thesis deals with the development of a method for determination of the concentration of selected isoflavones in samples of biological material by using HPLC. The method is applicable to both glycosylated (daidzeine, genistine and glycitine) and free forms of isoflavones (daidzeine, genisteine). The Ascentis® Express RP column 2,7 µm, 10 cm x 3 mm was used for analysis. The mobile phase was composed of a solution of formic acid and acetonitrile and the measurement was performed in a gradient elution mode. The constant flow rate of the mobile phase was set at 0.5 ml / min. The column was thermostated at 30 ř C. The sample injection volume was 10 µl. UV detection was performed at 249 nm and 260 nm. Six samples of biological material containing isoflavones were analyzed consequently. Based on the calibration previously carried out, concentrations of the isoflavones were determined in the biological samples. Key words: HPLC, daidzine, genistine, glycitine, analysis
Degradation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient canagliflozin using electrochemical oxidation
Bolíková, Markéta ; Křížek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Kozlík, Petr (referee)
This bachelor thesis is aimed at degradation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient canagliflozin by the electrochemical oxidation. The aim is to explore the influence of given measurement conditions on the course and the results of the electrochemical oxidation and to find out, under which conditions the largest percentage of the degradation products is formed. These conditions are, for example, the concentrations and pH values of the buffers which are used to dissolve the samples of canagliflozin, the flow rate of the electrochemically stressed substance solution through the flow cell or the thickness of the gasket inserted in front of the working electrode. Canagliflozin is an orally administered blood glucose lowering antidiabetic and is used to treat diabetes mellitus 2. type. It is one of the inhibitors of the sodium-glucose transporter type 2. For the separation of the degradation products of this pharmaceutically active substance, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with a UV/VIS diode array detector using an Agilent Poroshell 120 SB-Aq chromatographic column (2.1 × 100 mm; 2.7 µm) was chosen. The mobile phase contained an aqueous component, which was 10 mM formate buffer with pH 3.5 and the organic component, which was acetonitrile. The electrochemical oxidation of...
Analysis of Nicotine or Opium Alkaloids in Historical Pharmaceutical Relics from 18th Century
Belianský, Michal ; Nesměrák, Karel (advisor) ; Kubíčková, Anna (referee)
Belianský M.: Analysis of Nicotine or Opium Alkaloids in Historical Pharmaceutical Relics from 18th Century. Bachelor Thesis. Prague, Charles University, Faculty of Science 2020. Abstract: Two samples of historical relics of pharmaceuticals dated to the 18th century were analyzed; the first sample contained tobacco, the second laudanum, i.e., a preparation containing opium. HPLC with UV or mass detection was used for analysis. Separation of the alkaloids was performed on X Bridge® BEH C18 column using binary gradient elution. By comparison with a modern tobacco sample and on the basis of data from the literature, the presence of nicotine degradation products, especially 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine, was found in the historical sample. Because the nicotine content in the historical sample was very low, it was not possible to quantify it. The analysis of opium analytes in the second historical relics revealed the main opium alkaloids (cotarnine, morphine, meconin, papaverine, and noscapine) as well as their degradation products. Main alkaloids were also quantified. The ratio of noscapine to cotarnine was determined, which according to the literature is an indicator of the age of opium pharmaceuticals. Key words: degradation, HPLC, mass spectrometry, nicotine alkaloids, opium alkaloids
Study of redox reactions and adsorption of 4-nitrophenyl triazole labeled nucleosides and cresols on boron doped diamond electrodes for development of electroanalytical methods
Vosáhlová, Jana ; Schwarzová, Karolina (advisor) ; Havran, Luděk (referee) ; Navrátil, Tomáš (referee)
In this work, the application of boron-doped diamond electrodes with various surface pre- treatment were tested on selected oxidizable and reducible model compounds, specifically para and ortho cresols and 2'-deoxycytidine and 7-deazaadenosine labeled by 4-nitrophenyl triazole. The aim of the study was the investigation of electrochemical and adsorptive processes with respect to the development of electroanalytical methods of detection of the selected compounds, or utilization of boron-doped diamond electrodes as detectors in liquid-flow systems. Cresols were used as the model oxidizable compound. On O-terminated and polished boron- doped diamond electrodes, cresols provide oxidation signal owing to their oxidation to methylphenoxy radical at comparable potentials as on other carbon-based electrodes used as a reference in this work, i.e., glassy carbon electrode, pyrolytic graphite electrode, and carbon paste electrode. These carbon electrode materials show relatively high propensity to adsorption of reaction products, while such adsorption is minimal on boron-doped diamond. In situ anodic activation allows for a rapid regeneration of boron-doped diamond surface prior to each scan. A differential pulse voltammetric method that was developed with a detection limit of 0.61 mol∙l-1 to 2.97 mol∙l-1...
Voltammetric and amperometric determination of homovanillic, vanillylmandelic, and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid
Němečková, Anna ; Barek, Jiří (advisor) ; Labuda, Ján (referee) ; Skopalová, Jana (referee)
Presented dissertation thesis is focused on the development of electrochemical methods for the determination of three important tumour biomarkers, namely homovanillic acid (HVA), vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA). First part of the study is focused on electrochemical behaviour of these analytes in batch arrangement using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). It has been proved that presented method is sufficiently sensitive for monitoring above mentioned analytes. Moreover, it can be used for determination of HVA and VMA in mixture. Obtained limits of detection (LODs) were 0.24 µmol·L-1 for HVA, 0.06 µmol·L-1 for VMA, and 0.12 µmol·L-1 for 5-HIAA. The requirements to speed up the analysis and at the same time to reduce its price initialized our study of the determination of tested biomarkers in flow systems. Firstly, flow injection analysis with amperometric detection was investigated for the determination of all three biomarkers at the same SPCE, and then an analogous determination of structural more similar pair, HVA and VMA, was performed at a boron doped diamond electrode (BDDE). Obtained LODs of optimized methods were as follows: at SPCE 0.07 µmol·L-1 for HVA, 0.05 µmol·L-1 for VMA, and 0.03 µmol·L-1 for 5-HIAA,...
Chiral separation of biologically active compounds by chromatography
Landl, David ; Kalíková, Květa (advisor) ; Kubíčková, Anna (referee)
- 4 - Abstract in English This diploma thesis is focused on the evaluation and comparison of the enantioselective potential of two columns CHIRAL ART Amylose-SA and CDShell-RSP using a set of 29 chiral drugs in high performance liquid chromatography. The separations of enantiomers were performed in three modes: reversed-phase, normal-phase, and polar- organic mode. The CHIRAL ART Amylose-SA column was tested in normal-phase mode, the CDShell-RSP column in reversed-phase and polar-organic modes. The CHIRAL ART Amylose-SA column contains amylose tris(3,5- dimethylphenylcarbamate) immobilized on 3 µm porous silica gel particles. The CDShell-RSP column contains a chiral selector hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, which is covalently bonded on 2.7 µm superficially porous particles. In the normal-phase mode, mobile phases composed of hexane and propane-2-ol were used. Furthermore, the effect of various additives (triethylamine, diethylamine, trifluoroacetic acid, and the mixture of diethylamine and trifluoroacetic acid) in the mobile phase on the enantioseparation of chiral drugs was tested. The most universal additive was a mixture of diethylamine and trifluoroacetic acid. A total of 22 chiral drugs were enantioseparated on the CHIRAL ART Amylose-SA column, 10 of them were baseline separated. Mobile phases for...
Analysis of onion and garlic samples of different geographical origin
Korček, Jakub ; Mikulíková, Renata (referee) ; Diviš, Pavel (advisor)
Presented master thesis dealt with the analysis of garlic and onion samples and tried to find correlations between chemical composition and country of origin. The parameters examined were dry content, crude protein content, concentration of phenolic compunds, carbohydrate content (fructose, glucose), alliin content and concentration of selected elements (P, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Fe, Zn). Average content of dry matter of fresh samples was 35,84 ±2,12 g/100 g and of dehydrated samples was 90,61 ±2,90 g/100 g. Concentration of phenolic compounds was measured spectrophotometrically with Folin-Ciocault reagent. Average phenolic compounds content of samples was 0,1840 ±0,1286 GAE g/100 g. Crude protein content was measured by Kjeldahl method, and calculated from total nitrogen content. Carbohydrates were measured by HPLC-ELSD after hydrolysis of fructans. Average content of fructose of garlic samples was 57,014 ±0,863 g/100 g, of onion samples was 33,718 ±1,168 g/100 g. Average content of glucose of onion samples was 22,633 ±0,405 g/100 g. Alliin content was measured by HPLC-DAD method. Average alliin content of fresh samples was 4,644 ±0,446 g/100 g and of dehydrated samples was 1,962 ±0,180 g/100 g. Elemental analysis was conducted by ICP-OES method. Average concentration of selected elements was: P 2,15 ±0,11 mg/g, Mg 0,638 ±0,03 mg/g, Ca 1,246 ±0,05 mg/g, Na 0,550 ±0,08 mg/g, K 7,49 ±0,41 mg/g, Fe 79,3 ±6,16 mg/kg, Zn 11,4 ±3,33 mg/kg. Obtained data were statistically processed on significance level 0,05. Based on the principal components analysis, it was found, that the best parameters to differentiate samples from Czechia, Poland and Ukraine from other countries were content of nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and calcium. It was also discovered, that genus differences between onion and garlic have greater significance than geographical differences.
Study of geographical authenticity of Moravian white wines
Horáková, Kristýna ; Křikala, Jakub (referee) ; Diviš, Pavel (advisor)
The aim of this bachelor thesis was to verify geographical autenticity of Moravian white wines based on elemental analysis. This data were completed with the analysis of organic acids, fenolic compounds and atioxidants in wines. There were used two spektrometric methods for the elemental analysis (ICP-MS and ICP-OES). The concentration of organic acids was mesured by Ion chromatography. To determine the concentration of phenolic compounds in wines there was used the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD), the content of antioxidants and the total content of phenols was measured on spectrophotometer. In total there were 33 samples of wine from 4 Moravian subregions. For the purpose of determination the samples in groups the dataset was firstly corrected by Grubbs test for remote results. From those data the box plots were created which represents the minimal, maximal and mean concentrations of each measured component. Furthermore the analysis of variance was applied, which picked up 12 statisticly valuable parameters from the whole 47. By appliyng the multidimensional statistical methods (Pearson correlation analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA)) were compiled mathematical models for the division of Moravian wines according to geographical origin. The success rate of the discrimination test was 96,97%. The cross-validation test showed an 81,82% success rate for classifying unknown samples.
Influence of coffee making process on chemical composition of brewed coffee
Procházková, Kristina ; Divišová, Radka (referee) ; Diviš, Pavel (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the influence of baristic coffee preparations on the chemical composition of the obtained beverage. Teoretical part of this thesis focuses on coffee growing, processing technology and the chemical composition of coffee beans. In the experimental part were measured samples of espresso coffee, samples prepared by moca pot, flip-drip method, filtrated coffee, samples prepared by french-press technique, vacuum pot samples and boiled coffee. The samples were prepared according to the baristic techniques at first and later with adjusted water and amount of coffee so these methods could be compared with each other. This work focuses on the determination of caffeine and acrylamide content by liquid chromatography, validation of HPLC method, determination of total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, determination of organic acids by ion chromatography, determination of selected macro and micro elements by inductively coupled plasma in optical emission spectrometry and analysis of aromatic substances using gas chromatography. Based on the processed results and compared methods, it was shown that the moca pot had the greatest influence on the content of caffeine, acrylamide, organic acids and total phenolic substances, and the flip-drip with vacuum pot method had the greatest influence on the content of aromatic substances. From a baristic point of view the highest concentration of caffeine was 3689 mg/l in coffee based on flip-drip method, and concentration of acrylamide was 25,4 mg/l in the coffee based on the same method. The highest value of total phenolic content was determined in moka pot to c = 5,23 g/l. Regarding the mineral representation, the mineral decomposition of coffee beans and espresso were compared, and the highest values were reached by potassium, namely the concentration was 577 mg/l per 1 g of mineralized sample, in the cup of espresso the potassium concentration was 2461 mg/l. The highest content of organic acids was determined in the beverage prepared by moca pot, in terms of selected acids, the largest representation had the succinic acid with the concentration 599,8 mg/l. The highest content of aromatic substances was found in coffee from a moca pot and in coffee by flip-drip method. The biggest part was~made by furfuryl alcohol.

National Repository of Grey Literature : 268 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
Interested in being notified about new results for this query?
Subscribe to the RSS feed.