National Repository of Grey Literature 4 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Embryotoxicity testing of psychopharmacs using the CHEST method
Pavlovič, Ondřej ; Peterka, Miroslav (advisor) ; Maňáková, Eva (referee)
Psychotropic drugs are commonly used group of pharmaceuticals, their main effect is to alter psychic condition, including mental diseases treatment. Symptoms of mental illnesses are more and more common, theref orenumber of patients diagnosed with mental illnes, and thus using psychotropics, is growing stronger. But using psychotropics during gestation is not without risks for mother and embryo itself. However, thanks to the absence of controlled human studies, the knowledge of emrbyotoxic effects of pschotropics is limited to casuistics, reported side effects and animal experimental studies. Many of those studies suggests emrbyotoxic potential of psychotropic drugs, on the other hand, others claim their safety. The goal of this thesis is to test at least some of them, using CHEST method, that allows us to observe direct effect of unmetabolized substance on chick embryo. In this thesis we tested selected psychotropics, very common antidepressant fluoxetine (prozac) and antipsychotic drug olanzapine, for embryotoxicity, using in ovo method CHEST with chick embryos as model organism. By bypassing the maternal organism and his metabolism, this method allows to observe direct effect of unmetabolized substance on chick embryo. Results revealed embryotoxic effect of fluoxetin in dosage 10-2 and 10-3 on 3rd and...
Embryotoxicity test of thyroxine on chick embryo.
Petrušková, Michaela ; Peterka, Miroslav (advisor) ; Novotná, Božena (referee)
Thyroxine is the main thyroid gland's hormone. The state, when the thyroid gland does not produce enough of it into the bloodstream is called hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is related with several health complications; therefore it is required to take replacement therapy in adequate doses. Concerning pregnant women, it is important especially to keep the blood level of thyroxine in the normal, because increasing or decreasing of it, has an adverse effect on the health of the mother and also on the normal child development. The objective of my thesis was to describe malformations spectra of thyroxine, to find out the beginning of its embryotoxicity dose range for chick embryos, and recalculate this value for human embryos, allowing us to decide, if the level of thyroxine was increased by a replacement therapy, this could be embryotoxic for human. The experimental part of my work was to search an alternative method for testing embryotoxicity on chick embryos in ovo - CHEST, testing of embryotoxic potential of the thyroxine. Embryotoxicity is a feature of the external factors affecting the embryo, it may manifest as lethality, growth retardation, and teratogenicity; which is an ability of the external factor to induce the developmental defect. The most common manifestation of embryotoxicity in this...
Testing of embryotoxicity of selected human teratogenes on chicken embryos.
Pavlíková, Zuzana ; Peterka, Miroslav (advisor) ; Novotná, Božena (referee)
Teratogenes are external environmental factors that can cause a developmental or a congenital defect in exposed individuals. The methods used for detecting the embryotoxic effect of substances are the classic when laboratory mammals are used and the alternative which use in vitro and in ovo systems. The main difference between these two is that the alternative methods lack metabolism of maternal organism. The metabolism of maternal organism brings a high variability of results to systems of the classic methods. We used two alternative methods in this thesis, both using chicken embryo. The first of them was in ovo method called CHEST (Jelínek, 1977). CHEST method can be used for administration of tested substances from ED2 to ED6. The disadvantage of this method is due to the dilution of the tested substance after subgerminal application at ED2. Therefore we developed in vitro method called SANDWICH. No dilution occurs while using the SANDWICH method. The aim of this study was to develop in vitro method SANDWICH while using proven teratogene (all-trans retinoic acid) and its solvent (dimethyl sulfoxide), to estimate beginning of the embryotoxicity dose range for both substances using CHEST and SANDWICH, and finally to compare obtained results. We confirmed the embryotoxic effect of all-trans...
Analysis of embryotoxic effect of hydrocortisone using chick embryotoxicity screening test (CHEST).
Janíková, Michaela ; Peterka, Miroslav (advisor) ; Hovořáková, Mária (referee)
Cleft lip is one of the most common human birth deffects. Its etiopathogenesis is multifactorial and many aspects of its occurrence remain unknown in the fields of both genetics and teratology. One of the set of known negative external factors causing cleft lip is chemical hydrocortisone. Its effect on cell proliferation is highly heterogeneous and depends on attributes of a specific cell population. In this work we studied the cleft beak origin after the hydrocortisone treatment on the basis of Chick Embryotoxicity Screening Test (CHEST). Our main aim was to detect cell cycle changes in the chick frontonasal process after hydrocortisone injection via flow cytometry analysis. Hydrocortisone caused S phase arrest within a minor subpopulation of highly granular cells with specific cell cycle. This sensitive subpopulation was localized in the areas of previously defined proliferative centers within the frontonasal process using immunohistochemistry of frozen sections. Quantitative analysis of cells in these areas revealed significant decrease of M phase portion in the hydrocortisone treated samples in comparison with the control samples. The TUNEL staining of histological sections was used to determine the apoptotic rate in the frontonasal process. The comparison between the control and the...

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