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Determination of manganese in food supplements by atomic absorption spectrometry
Melicharová, Zuzana ; Hraníček, Jakub (advisor) ; Šíma, Jan (referee)
EN The main content of this thesis was the determination of manganese in the form of manganese ions in food supplements by the atomic absorption spectrometry. It was necessary to find the optimum conditions for this method, to conduct interference studies, to find a suitable way of transferring samples into solution and to determin manganese to achieve this goal. Following parameters were examined in optimalization study: beam height above burner edge, burner horizontal position, acetylene flow rate, torch angle, and spectral interval width. Copper, iron, sodium and calcium ions were investigated as interferents as they were present at the highest concentration in selected food supplements. The conversion of solid samples into solution was carried out in water and nitric acid at a room temperature as well as elevated temperature. These food supplements were selected for analysis: Calibrum 50 Plus, Caltrate Plus, Center A to Iron, DAS Gesunde Plus A-Z Multispectrum, GS Extra Strong Multivitamin, Spectrum 50+ and Supradyn Energy Complex. The manganese assay was performed on a GBC 933 AA spectrophotometer. Standard solutions were measured to determine the detection limit and the limit of determination of the instrument. The detection limit was 0.001 mg/l and the limit of determination was 0.004 mg/l...
Determination of rubidium in selected plant extracts by atomic absorption spectrometry
Šatrová, Lucie ; Hraníček, Jakub (advisor) ; Jelínek, Ivan (referee)
In this diploma thesis, rubidium in plant material samples was determined by atomic absoption spectrometry. Determination of plant material rubidium was performed on two different atomic absorption spectrometers (GBC 933 AA and ContrAA 700) for comparison. The selection of a proper method of atomization was essential, therefore optimizations for the flame atomizer and electrothermal atomizer were performed. On the GBC 933 AA, flame atomization was tested. The flow rate of the acetylene-air, vertical and horizontal flame profile, spectral interval width was optimized for the instrument. On the ContrAA 700, the conditions for flame atomization were optimized as well as for electrothermal atomization. The optimized parameters included the acetylene-air flow rate and the vertical flame profile again. For the electrothermal atomization, the temperature dependence of pyrolysis and the temperature dependence of atomization were optimized. Under experimentally determined optimal conditions, the determination of rubidium in fruit and vegetable juice samples was performed by the method of calibration curve. Rubidium usually accompanies toher alkali metals. In the absence of essential biogenic elements iportant for plant growth, rubidium is able to help out and take on the role of potassium.
Optimization of chemical generation and subsequent atomization of volatile cadmium species for atomic absorption spectrometry
Sagapova, Linda ; Kratzer, Jan (advisor) ; Marschner, Karel (referee)
Generation and atomization of cadmium volatile compounds was optimized in this work in order to determine trace Cd concentration levels by volatile compound generation (VCG) with subsequent detection by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Three designs of volatile compound generators have been tested including a conventional hydride generator in flow injection analysis (FIA) mode, a batch generator as well as a generator of volatile compounds of transition metals. The generation efficiency of Cd species was quantified as low as 4 % in the conventional hydride generator. Providing that dissolved oxygen was removed from the reaction solutions, the generation efficiency of Cd increased to 12 % in the same experimental arrangement. The highest Cd generation efficiency of 54 % was reached in the generator of volatile compounds of transition metals. In this set up a detection limit of 0.07 ng ml-1 Cd and a sensitivity of 3.2 s ng-1 Cd, respectively, were reached. Moreover, the structure of the volatile Cd species generated was identified as free atoms in all experimental arrangements of the generators investigated. Keywords atomic absorption spectrometry, cadmium, generation of volatile compounds, atomization of volatile compounds
Hydride generation of tellurium for atomic absorption spectrometry
Bufková, Kateřina ; Musil, Stanislav (advisor) ; Matoušek, Tomáš (referee)
This master's thesis deals with optimization of conditions of chemical hydride generation of tellurium and conditions of its atomization, specifically in three types of atomizers - in a diffusion flame (DF), in a heated multiple microflame quartz tube atomizer (MMQTA) and in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) atomizer. Tellurium hydride was generated in a flow injection arrangement and a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer was used for detection. As hydride generation can be only done from tetravalent species of tellurium, at first a simple procedure of pre-reduction of hexavalent species of tellurium by heating a standard in hydrochloric acid at 6 mol dm-3 was verified. Further, conditions of chemical generation were optimized with a goal to achieve as high generation efficiency as possible, namely, concentration of hydrochloric acid and sodium tetrahydroborate, volume of the reaction coil and a flow rate of carrier gas. Subsequently, conditions of atomization of tellurium hydride were examined with chosen optimal generation conditions. In the case of DF, it was an amount of hydrogen in the flame, a total flow rate of gases and observation height. In the case of MMQTA, temperature of the atomizer, a flow rate of carrier gas and a flow rate of air or oxygen needed for...
Hydride generation of bismuth for atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrometry.
Kolrosová, Marta ; Musil, Stanislav (advisor) ; Nováková, Eliška (referee)
This master's thesis deals with the optimization of conditions of chemical hydride generation (HG) of bismuth, its atomization and detection by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Two types of atomizers were used for atomization of volatile species, a miniature diffusion flame for AAS as well as for AFS and a flame-in-gas-shield atomizer for AFS. At first, the parameters of HG in a flow injection mode were optimized - the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the concentration of sodium borohydride and the volume of the reaction coil. Subsequently, the atomization conditions were optimized using both atomizers. The parameters optimized were hydrogen fraction, total gas flow rate and observation height. Due to the more complicated construction of the FIGS atomizer, more parameters were studied, such as the oxygen flow rate through the capillary and the flow rate of shielding argon required for shielding the free atoms. A special part of the thesis dealt with the optimization of the optical path of the atomic fluorescence spectrometer, the selection of an interference filter and the optimization of a power supply of an electrodeless discharge lamp. It was found that under optimum conditions of generation, atomization and detection excellent detection limits...
Mechanism of atomization of selected hydride forming elements in an externally heated quartz tube atomizer and a dielectric barrier discharge atomizer
Juhászová, Lucie ; Kratzer, Jan (advisor) ; Hrdlička, Aleš (referee)
Atomization conditions for tin hydride in the planar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma atomizer were optimized with detection by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The effects of apparatus arrangement such as the shape of a waveform function of the high voltage power supply source, DBD atomizer design as well as presence of a dryer tube filled with NaOH pellets to prevent residual aerosol and moisture transport into the DBD were investigated in detail. The optimal experimental setup consisted of a square wave high voltage power supply source coupled to a DBD with vapor-deposited electrodes in the presence of NaOH dryer upstream the DBD atomizer. Argon was found as the best discharge gas under a flow rate of 120 mL min-1 while the DBD optimum high voltage supply rate was 7 kV. A sensitivity of 0.05 s ng-1 Sn and a limit of detection of 1.1 ng mL-1 Sn were reached under optimized conditions. Optimization of the whole experimental setup resulted in 7-fold improvement of sensitivity compared to the original arrangement consisting of a sinusoidal source coupled to a DBD atomizer with glued electrodes in absence of the dryer. Keywords atomic absorption spectrometry, hydride generation, hydride atomization, quart tube atomizer, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD)
UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds of selenium and tellurium
Nováková, Eliška
The presented thesis deals with UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds of Se and Te from various species. The aim of the project was to expand the current state of knowledge by the application of photocatalytic reduction of higher oxidation states of Se and Te for the speciation analysis based on UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds. The first step of the study was the assembly of the apparatus for the photocatalysed UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds. The material of reactor and the whole experimental set-up were based on literature survey and previous research done in our research group. Experiments were directed towards finding the optimum conditions for generation of volatile compounds of selected model elements Se and Te. Se was studied as the element most commonly determined by the UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds. Conversely, Te was selected as a model analyte representing elements forming less stable volatile compounds. The second part was the application of the optimised method of photocatalysed UV- photochemical generation of volatile Se compound to the determination of Se in water matrices, liquid certified reference materials and also samples of dietary supplements. TiO2/UV-photochemical generation was also successfully modified to...
Miniature plasma DBD atomizer for AAS and AFS
Straka, Marek ; Kratzer, Jan (advisor) ; Hrdlička, Aleš (referee)
Five designs of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) atomizers have been constructed and optimized employing arsane as a model analyte. The individual DBD designs differed from each other in the style of electrode attachment, electrode shape and area. An externally heated quartz tube atomizer and another DBD atomizer design that have been studied before were used as reference. All the atomizer designs studied including the reference atomizers were found compatible with detection by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) giving comparable sensitivity of 0.44 s ng-1 As and detection limit around 0.2 ng ml-1 As under optimum atomization conditions. However, significant differences in optimum operation conditions were found among the DBD designs in terms of the applied voltage depending strongly on the style of electrode attachment. The design with metal strip electrodes glued to a quartz body requires more than 14 kV to be operated. The design with sputtered electrodes of the same shape can reach the same sensitivity with 8.5 kV. Selected DBD designs have been proven to be compatible also with other spectrometric detectors such as atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) reaching detection limit 0.05 ng ml-1 As or atomic emission spectrometry (AES) with detection limit of 30 ng ml-1 As showing the...
Analysis of selected elements in dendrological sample of spruce trunk
Pastrňáková, Aneta ; Hraníček, Jakub (advisor) ; Šíma, Jan (referee)
The aim of this bachelor thesis was to determine selected elements, specifically iron, manganese, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, barium, copper, zinc, strontium and aluminium in the sample of a spruce wood, taken from a dry tree from an area of South Bohemia. As a suitable and sufficiently sensitive method an atomic absorption spectrometry with flame atomization was used in this bachelor thesis. Before the analysis optimal conditions for the determination of these elements were experimentally found. The beam height above the burner edge and the acetylene flow rate were optimized depending on the type of oxidant used. Under the optimal conditions, the basic characteristics of the determination of individual elements were determined. These characteristics include mainly the limit of detection and quantification, sensitivity and repeatability. Optimized methods for determination of the selected elements were further applied for the analysis of real spruce wood samples. These samples were prepared by decomposition of the wood in a microwave device in the presence of nitric acid. In order to suppress interference, the suitable reagents were added to the analyzed samples to determine the selected elements (sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, barium). In total, 22 samples of wood of different...
Photochemical generation of volatile species of cobalt for analytical atomic spectrometry
Vyhnanovský, Jaromír ; Musil, Stanislav (advisor) ; Nováková, Eliška (referee)
This master's thesis deals with the optimization of conditions for photochemical generation of volatile species of cobalt. Volatile species of cobalt were generated in a flow injection system using a high-efficiency flow through UV generator from formic acid based medium. For detection a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer was used. The volatile species were atomized using a diffusion flame atomizer because of its high robustness. First the optimizations of the parameters affecting the atomization in the diffusion flame and the parameters affecting the transport of the volatile species from the UV generator into the atomizer were carried out (flow rates and composition of the gases, type of a separator, observation height). After that, the optimization of the parameters of the photochemical generation itself was carried out. These were the composition of a reaction medium (concentration of formic acid and formate, type of formate salt) and irradiation time. The possibility of generation of the volatile species from acetic acid based medium was also investigated, but no signal was observed. At chosen optimal conditions of generation the influence of potential interferents was examined, mainly from inorganic acids (HNO3 and HCl) and some transition metals (Fe, Cu and Ni)....

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