National Repository of Grey Literature 30 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Energetic use of wastewater sludge and microwave pyrolysis products
Šimek, Radim ; Ševčík, Jan (referee) ; Hlavínek, Petr (advisor)
The diploma thesis is focused on the energy utilization of sewage sludge before and after microwave pyrolysis process. The first part of the thesis deals with sludge management, treatment of sludge and its subsequent use or disposal. In the second part of the thesis prepared and modified samples of sludge from WWTP 1 and WWTP 2 are subjected to microwave pyrolysis process. Subsequently, samples are taken for analyzes to determine the total organic carbon, the specific surface area, the heavy metal content and the calorific values. The resulting data was processed in Microsoft Office Excel and presented at work. At the end of the thesis two case studies are then proposed for a specific design of the conceptual location of microwave pyrolysis for the sludge drying process and the drying process of the sewage sludge in the direct combustion boiler room.
Optimization of Gasification Process of Biodegradable Wastes
Elbl, Patrik ; Milčák, Pavel (referee) ; Lisý, Martin (advisor)
The aim of the diploma thesis is to discuss the gasification of biodegradable waste. The theoretical part deals with gasification with focus on gasification phases, types of gasification reactors and pollutants contained in the generated gas, especially tar. Further, there is listed the characteristic of alternative biomass fuels, namely digestate and sludge waste. The practical part is devoted to gasification on a fluidized bed reactor with the aim to test the possibilities of gasification of these fuels, to determine their specifications and the influence of various gasification media. In the final part there are discussed the results of the collected gases and tar.
Hormones in sewage sludge
Jagošová, Klára ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Čáslavský, Josef (advisor)
Currently there is a spate of interest in the presence of pharmacologically active substances in the environment. These substances are excreted in active or metabolized form and with wastewater pass the wastewater treatment plant. Current treatment technologies do not always eliminate all pharmaceuticals effectively and therefore they enter the environment. One of these active groups is the group of steroid hormones. Steroid hormones belong to the group of endocrine disruptors and they are considered to be dangerous for the ecosystems. Due to the hydrophobic character of steroid hormones they undergo partial or total sorption from wastewater to sludge. Sewage sludge is the by product of wastewater treatment and contains heavy metals, organic contaminants and pathogenic bacteria. A part of produced sewage sludge is used as a fertilizer in the Czech Republic. This issue follows the regulation 347/2016 – conditions of agricultural use of sewage sludge. Waste policy of EU will alter the conditions of sludge disposal, so it is necessary to obtain data about the concentration levels, fate and behaviour of those pollutants. This thesis was focused on five natural female hormones and four synthetic, which are used as a part of contraceptive pills and substitutional hormonal therapy. Determination of hormones was performed in four steps including ultrasonic assisted extraction, clean up by solid phase extraction, derivatization and final analysis by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry on triple quadrupole in MS/MS mode.
Hodnotenie fyzikálnych a chemických vlastností kalu z čistiarní odpadných vôd
Kaczor, Adrian
The aim of this project is to contribute to more effective usage of anaerobic fermenters in sewage sediment management by upgrading sewage treatment plants and thereby reduce the operating costs of these facilities. I build up on the first phase of this project, which I have already processed in my bachelor work. Within the II. stage, processes are considered in the anaerobic decomposition of sludge from wastewater treatment plants, where came to the modernization of the biological system. Part of this work was also the realization of laboratory measurements of the amount of biogas production from anaerobic fermentation of sewage sludge. The measurements were made with an external substrate added to the anaerobic reactor. At the same time, we also monitored the influence of these substances on a biogas production.
Chemical dosing optimalisation during by wastewater sludge dewatering
Pániková, Kristína ; Novotná, Věra (referee) ; Hrich, Karel (advisor)
Bachelor thesis deals with chemical dosing optimisation during by wastewater sludge dewatering. The thesis has two parts, practical and theoretical. Theoretical part contains basic information about thickening, destabilization and stabilization, flocculants, methods of measurement and final sludge treatment. The evaluation of laboratory measurements and presentation of the results are in the practical part.
The possibilities to combine biogas production and biowaste hydrothermal carbonization
Usťak, Sergej ; Honzík, Roman ; Muňoz, jakub
The objective of the methodology is to provide to farmers, agricultural consultants, owners and operators of biogas plants, to biowaste producers and processors, to experts in the field of soil reclamation and melioration, to investors and other interested parties on the concerned issues, the basic information about the potential at the combination of biogas production and biowaste hydrothermal carbonization. These options are evaluated on the basis of processing at accumulated energy intensity for the above combined processes and its comparison with conservative biogas production using the example biogas plant with installed electrical capacity of 800 kW. Part of the methodology is guided to evaluate the potential use of thermo- pressure hydrolysis unit as a device for digestate hydrothermal carbonization and other wastes in order to improve their performance, particularly in terms of employment in agriculture as highquality substrates for soil fertilization and for the purpose of soil carbon sequestration.
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Černý, David ; Malaťák, Jan (advisor) ; Mašek, Jiří (referee)
Organic wastes represent available replacement for crops grown specifically for biofuel production. However, the combustion of solid biofuels is often accompanied by technical problems. Biofuels made of organic wastes require the source of which do not contain hazardous substances that could be their combustion in simple combustion sources came into the atmosphere as emissions. This thesis is focused on the assessment of technical and operational parameters of small combustion plants while burning biofuels and also of the measurement of emission concentrations of CO and NOX in the flue gas and its subsequent analysis. Samples were selected as solid fuel in the form of a lump, briquettes and pellets made from advanced materials. Incineration was realized in the fireplace with a grate furnace and automatic stove. The bark briquettes could appears to be a suitable substitution for coal or wooden briquettes, and during combustion in grate emission concentrations of CO were achieved with a value of 560.8 +/- 98.9 mg.m-3,on the contrary NOX levels were relatively high 1 193.6 +/- 141.7 mg.m-3. In case of this work, when using the furnace the briquettes were made from compost , whose emission levels are higher: CO 1 487.8 +/- 418.8 mg.m-3, NOx levels were somewhat lower 330.8 +/- 26.3 mg.m-3 than the briquettes bark. An experimental sample of sewage sludge, which has been modified by hydrothermal carbonisation, was burned on the grate furnace and the measured emission levels for CO 1 493.3 +/- 237.3 mg.m-3 and NOX levels 544.8 +/- 20.2 mg.m-3, positive because it was achieved the rated output of the combustion equipment and the heat of combustion of the sample is very low 12.61 MJ.kg-1. The most efficient combustion of 80.8 +/- 2,7 % was achieved using automatic stove, during burning waste wood pellets certificate ENplus A1, the very low levels of emission and a very low emission levels for CO with a value of 117.5 +/- 14.4 mg.m-3 and values NOX 110.3 +/- 2.9 mg.m-3 were measured. Following experiments on this device were intended to increase the efficiency of a combustion plant by installing a hot-air heat exchanger and preheating combustion air. Method with preheating combustion air caused an increase in the emission concentration of CO.
Energetic utilisation of sewage sludge
Tlašek, Miroslav ; Stříteský, Luboš (referee) ; Hlavínek, Petr (advisor)
Diploma thesis deals with issues related to final treatment sludge. Sewage sludge is an inevitable product of wastewater treatment. Also, most of them concentrated pollution. Most of pollution are concentrated in to them. And because it contains a large percentage of combustibles. Before thermal utilization, it is necessary to appropriately adjust the sludge. Thermal sludge utilization offers the most effective method of energy recovery. It is an energy conversion in the sludge, to heat and electricity. In the vast majority, if not the co-firing, it is necessary to modify the sludge and so it is dried. This is the optimal use of modern technology. There are several variations possible use. Unfortunately it is not in general able to propose the most appropriate technology or methodology, how to make best use of sewage sludge. Specific assignment usually have their own characteristics. In my work I will therefore first try to outline possible technology and in the second part to suggest sludge terminal for WWTP Hodonín.
PERSPECTIVE METHODS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE UTILISATION FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION
Elsässer, Thomas ; Klemeš,, Jiří (referee) ; Žaloudík, Petr (referee) ; Stehlík, Petr (advisor)
Tato práce o energetickém využití čistírenských kalů obsahuje popis vlastností kalu (hustota, měrná tepelná kapacita a dynamická viskozita). Stěžejní kapitoly jsou věnovány desintegraci kalu pro zvýšení obsahu sušiny po odvodnění a experimentálnímu zkoumání tvorby emisí při spalování kalu, kde byl posuzován vliv přídavku alkálie. Spalování vysušeného kalu proběhlo ve fluidní vrstvě, byla zkoumána produkce škodlivin a distribuce těžkých kovů. Druhá ucelená část práce je věnována termochemické desintegraci stabilizovaného kalu, přičemž byl experimentálně vyhodnocován vliv na obsah vody v odvodněném kalu. Provedené experimenty sloužily k detekci vhodné teploty a dávky chemikálie. Výsledky experimentů byly rovněž podkladem pro ekonomickou bilanci, která je založena na úsporách za likvidaci menšího množství kalu.
Treatment of Waste Water Treatment Sludge Prior of its Following Utilization
Pěček, Jan ; Klemeš,, Jiří (referee) ; Žaloudík, Petr (referee) ; Jícha, Jaroslav (advisor)
Industrial production of cellulose is an energy intensive process. Businesses aim to utilized as much input energy, materials as possible while minimizing the waste as well. In addition to the main product – cellulose and large amounts of organically polluted water which is subsequently treated in waste water treatment plants. This PhD thesis deals with formation of suitable mixing formula for sludge from cellulose production and available materials (waste) from close neighborhood of Biocel Paskov a.s. so that well balanced cofermentation products are achieved. This mainly involves grass from lawn maintenance, grass ensilage, potato peels, and leftovers from vegetable processing. Fermentation processes (both mesophilic and thermophilic) of prepared fermentation products were conducted in semi-continuous and continuous laboratory fermentation units. Reduction of organic mass depending on residence time was closely observed as well as production and quality of biogas along with quality of output digestate. Course of process behaviour under controlled pH was tested. Results of particular tests were integrated into graphs. Conclusion of the thesis presents balance scheme drawn for selected variants, and design of real fermentation station with individual buildings, operations, basic machinery and equipment description including investment costs. Financial calculation and expected investment return was conducted in two variants – without subsidies and including subsidies from Operational Programme Renewable Sources of Energy.

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