National Repository of Grey Literature 75 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Determination of selected elements in potato tubers by atomic absorption spectrometry
Fořtová, Lucie ; Hraníček, Jakub (advisor) ; Kozlík, Petr (referee)
The main aim of this bachelor thesis was a determination of the elements K, Mg, Ca, Na, Zn and Fe in the potato tubers and in their boiled solution using the method of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The chosen samples were late consumer potato tubers of Granada cultivar (boiling type B). It was necessary to optimize working conditions before the sample analysis. The optimal flow rate of acetylene ranged from 2.0 to 2.5 l/min using the flame acetylene-air. The flame acetylene-nitrous oxide was used only for calcium with flow rate 6.0 l/min. The optimal height of a beam above the burner edge was measured in interval 5 to 7 pieces of defined scale mentioned in a manual for spectrometer GBC 933 AA. Using the optimal conditions, the basic characteristics for individual methods of determination were characterized (LOD, LOQ, LDR, sensitivity, repeatability). Limits of quantification were following: 78, 31, 7.0, 8.0, 190 and 71 μg/l for K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe and Zn, respectively. The optimal conditions were used for the determination of the selected elements in samples. The solutions were prepared from diversely processed potato tubers (whole, whole without skin, chopped without skin, skin) by boiling into deionized water. After the samples had cooled down, the concentrated nitric acid was added...
Determination of lead and cadmium in fruits and vegetables extracts by atomic absorption spectrometry
Záškodová, Terezie ; Hraníček, Jakub (advisor) ; Červený, Václav (referee)
The content of this thesis was to analyse fruit and vegetable extracts. In the samples, the concentration of lead and cadmium was determine by atomic absorption spectrometry. First, it was necessary to conduct an optimalization study to find the optimal conditions of the method and select the appropriate method of atomization of the sample. It was chosen between flame and electrothermal atomization. For optimization, the following parameters were studied for atomization in flame: beam height above the burner, fuel flow rate, horizontal burner position, spectral interval width and lamp supply current. An optimization study for electrothermal atomization included the effect of atomization a pyrolysis temperature on signal size. Standard lead and cadmium solutions were used to determine the detection limits of the instruments used. The limit of detection in flame atomization was for lead respectively cadmium 0,002 mg/l, resp. 0,003 mg/l. In electrothermal atomization the detection limit was for lead, resp. cadmium 0,026 μg/l, resp. 0,029 μg/l. The experimentally determined values were statistically processed and the lead and cadmium contents were compared with the lead and cadmium limit values that may be contained in a sample of fruit and vegetables according to Commission Regulation (EC) No...
Determination of Te(IV) by photochemical generation of volatile compounds with atomic spectrometric detection
Ruxová, Helena ; Hraníček, Jakub (advisor) ; Šíma, Jan (referee)
This thesis deals with the development of a method suitable for determination Te(IV) by UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds (UV-PVG) in liquid samples. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and atomic fluorescent spectrometry (AFS) were used as detection methods. The basis of the apparatus for UV-PVG was a mercury lamp wrapped by PTFE capillary. Firstly, the experimental parameters were optimized for both methods. The optimized parameters were the type, concentration, pH and flow rate of the reaction medium, the length of the PTFE reaction coil, carrier gas flow rate (argon), supportive gas flow rate (hydrogen) and atomization temperature. The figures of merit with both detection methods were determined and compared after the method was optimized. Detection limits achieved for these two detection methods were 6,0 µg dm-3 for AFS and 1,50 µg dm-3 for AAS. Performed interference study confirmed a significant effect of many cations of transition metals and hydride forming elements on tellurium determination. The influence of nitric acid in the sample was studied separately. The suitability of the method for tellurium determination was confirmed by using a spiked certified reference material.
Determination of cadmium and copper in bood of great tits
Adamová, Simona ; Hraníček, Jakub (advisor) ; Červený, Václav (referee)
EN Monitoring of the environment is one of the most important activities nowadays. This monitoring includes, for example, monitoring the concentration levels of heavy metals in organisms with a defined relationship to the environment. Great tit (Parus major) was evaluated as a suitable indicator of the environment especially for its abundance and presence near human settlements. The target of this bachelor thesis is to determine cadmium and copper in dried blood samples of these birds from several parts of Europe. All samples were prepared using microwave digestion and analyzed using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, which is known for its ability to determine simultaneously metals in biological samples even at very low concentrations. Key words Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, heavy metals, copper, cadmium, great tit, blood
Determination of lead and zinc in great tits blood
Greguš, Viktor ; Hraníček, Jakub (advisor) ; Nováková, Eliška (referee)
EN Determination of heavy metals in urban living passerine birds organism has been considered as suitable method for monitoring pollution of human enviroment which these elements can cause. This study deals with determination of zinc and lead in dried great tits blood samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry technique. Dried blood samples were weighed, solubilized in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and microwavelly digested. Calibration standards for determined elements were prepared and basic analytical characteristics of the measurement were determined. Matrix interference was examined by measuring the recovery of element determination presented as a ratio of the slope of standard addition to the certified reference material of whole blood sample and the slope of external calibration.
SEQUENTIAL INJECTION ANALYSIS CAPABILITY IN AUTOMATION OF ANALYTICAL PROCESSES
Novosvětská, Lucie ; Sklenářová, Hana (advisor) ; Polášek, Miroslav (referee) ; Hraníček, Jakub (referee)
Charles University, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Analytical Chemistry Candidate (married name/maiden name): Mgr. Lucie Novosvětská / Mgr. Lucie Zelená Supervisor: assoc. prof. PharmDr. Hana Sklenářová, Ph.D. Consultant: PharmDr. Petr Chocholouš, Ph.D. Title of dissertation thesis: Sequential injection analysis capability in automation of analytical processes This dissertation, composed as a commented collection of four scientific articles and one undergoing project, introduces four novel applications in the field of automated flow methods and one application in the field of chromatographic methods used in analytical part of a complex pharmacological study. It the field of pharmaceutical analysis, three works were successfully optimized, validated, and published in scientific journals. Those works include: a) Automation of permeation studies within a sequential injection analysis system connected to a liberation unit and carrying out experiments with living cells. b) Pharmacological study of an antiretroviral drug efavirenz including its determination by fast chromatographic method in three types of sample matrices - in a medium from permeation studies with cellular models, in a Krebs solution from rat placenta perfusions, and in placenta tissue lysates. c) Determination of...
Determination of manganese in food supplements by atomic absorption spectrometry
Melicharová, Zuzana ; Hraníček, Jakub (advisor) ; Šíma, Jan (referee)
EN The main content of this thesis was the determination of manganese in the form of manganese ions in food supplements by the atomic absorption spectrometry. It was necessary to find the optimum conditions for this method, to conduct interference studies, to find a suitable way of transferring samples into solution and to determin manganese to achieve this goal. Following parameters were examined in optimalization study: beam height above burner edge, burner horizontal position, acetylene flow rate, torch angle, and spectral interval width. Copper, iron, sodium and calcium ions were investigated as interferents as they were present at the highest concentration in selected food supplements. The conversion of solid samples into solution was carried out in water and nitric acid at a room temperature as well as elevated temperature. These food supplements were selected for analysis: Calibrum 50 Plus, Caltrate Plus, Center A to Iron, DAS Gesunde Plus A-Z Multispectrum, GS Extra Strong Multivitamin, Spectrum 50+ and Supradyn Energy Complex. The manganese assay was performed on a GBC 933 AA spectrophotometer. Standard solutions were measured to determine the detection limit and the limit of determination of the instrument. The detection limit was 0.001 mg/l and the limit of determination was 0.004 mg/l...
Development of electrophoretic method for determination of sulphate in blood plasma
Hnízdilová, Lucie ; Křížek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Hraníček, Jakub (referee)
Cílem této bakalářské práce bylo vyvinout metodu pro stanovení síranů v krevní plazmě pomocí kapilární zónové elektroforézy. Byla použita křemenná kapilára o vnitřním průměru 50 μm a efektivní délce 41,5 cm. Plazmatické proteiny byly sráženy acetonitrilem. Jako optimální základní elektrolyt byla určena 0,4M kyselina mravenčí s 15mM chromanem draselným. Separační napětí bylo 25 kV. Vzorek byl dávkován napětím -5 kV po dobu 40 s. K vyhodnocení byla využita nepřímá UV detekce při 260 nm. Vzhledem ke složité matrici je vhodné provést kvantifikaci metodou standardního přídavku. Po vztažení ploch píků na vnitřní standard (500μM chlorečnany) byla relativní směrodatná odchylka 5,97 %. Výhodou této metody oproti dříve používaným srážecím metodám je krátká doba analýzy a jednodušší úprava vzorku. Klíčová slova kapilární elektroforéza, anorganické ionty, sírany, krevní plazma

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