National Repository of Grey Literature 12 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The analysis of mechanisms associated with beneficial metabolic effects of marine Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in different lipid forms.
Pavlišová, Jana ; Rossmeisl, Martin (advisor) ; Maletínská, Lenka (referee) ; Cahová, Monika (referee)
Obesity, one of the most serious health problems of the 21st century, often occurs as a result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Dietary lipids play an important role in the development of obesity, partly because they represent the richest source of energy amongst all macronutrients. It is, however, not only the amount of consumed lipids, but also the composition of fatty acids, which strongly influences health effects of a particular diet. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) are generally considered as unhealthy due to their pro-inflammatory and lipotoxic properties, while monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) represent a healthier alternative, as they are more readily oxidized and do not disrupt biochemical properties of cellular membranes. Amongst PUFA, PUFA of n-3 series (Omega-3) represent an utterly unique class of lipids that have been documented to protect against cardiovascular disease and dyslipidemia in men and improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance primarily in animal models of obesity. Some molecular mechanisms of Omega-3 action have been already uncovered, such as the modification of biological membranes composition, activation of various transcription factors and membrane receptors, and their role as precursors for...
Regulation of lipogenesis in human adipose tissue: Effect of metabolic stress, dietary intervention and aging.
Šrámková, Veronika ; Rossmeislová, Lenka (advisor) ; Cahová, Monika (referee) ; Kuda, Ondřej (referee) ; Tanti, Jean-Francois (referee)
Adipose tissue (AT) is a complex organ specialised in safe storage and release of energy as lipids. The adipose organ is therefore essential for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. The prototypical cells of AT are adipocytes, emerging from the precursors in a process called adipogenesis. Adipogenesis itself is tightly connected with lipogenesis, i.e. with the synthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides. Various stimuli can disturb adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis and thus contribute to AT dysfunction and development of associated metabolic diseases. This thesis was endoplasmicfocused on the investigation of lipogenesis in the context of reticulum stress (ERS), calorie restriction and aging. In Project A, we showed that exposition of adipocytes to high acute ERS inhibits expression of lipogenic genes and glucose incorporation into lipids. Moreover, chronic exposure of preadipocytes to ERS impaired both, lipogenesis and adipogenesis. On the other hand, chronic low ERS had no apparent effect on lipogenesis in adipocytes. These effects of ERS could therefore contribute to the worsening of AT function seen in obesity. The capacity of AT to store lipids decreases in aging, possibly due to the accumulation of senescence cells or higher ERS. In Project B, we investigated lipogenic capacity of...
Amelioration of obesity-associated disorders by n-3 PUFA and oleuropein: adipocentric view
Svobodová, Michaela ; Flachs, Pavel (advisor) ; Cahová, Monika (referee) ; Kunešová, Marie (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Science Department of Genetics and Microbiology Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic Institute of Physiology, v.v.i Synopsis of Ph.D. Thesis Amelioration of obesity -associated disorders by n-3 PUFA and oleuropein: adipocentric view Michaela Svobodová Praha 2015 Doktorské studijní programy v biomedicine 1 2 Univerzita Karlova v Praze a Akademie věd České republiky Program: Molekulární a buněčná biologie, genetika a virologie Předseda oborové rady: prof. RNDr. Stanislav Zadražil, DrSc. Školicí pracoviště: Fyziologický ústav AV ČR, v.v.i. Autor: Michaela Svobodová Školitel: RNDr. Pavel Flachs, Ph.D. S disertací je možno se seznámit v příslušných knihovnách Přírodovědecké fakulty Univerzity Karlovy v Praze.
Role of immune and adipose cells in the development of adipose tissue inflammation induced by stress associated with obesity
Kračmerová, Jana ; Rossmeislová, Lenka (advisor) ; Cahová, Monika (referee) ; Daňková, Pavlína (referee)
1 SUMMARY Obesity and overfeeding are associated not only with increased circulating levels of nutrients and metabolites, but also with increased risk of the development of additional disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer or insulin resistance. Plausible link between obesity and its comorbidities is inflammatory state, observed on the whole body level as well as in AT. As possible initiators of this inflammation, hypertrophied adipocytes were suggested. Adipocytes per se secrete a spectrum of heterogeneous molecules including cytokines. Under the stress conditions, adipocytes and subsequently AT resident immune cells switch to pro-inflammatory state and via secretory signaling attract additional immune cells. Furthermore, hypertrophic adipocytes release higher levels of metabolites that may also contribute to pro- inflammatory polarization of immune cells, mainly macrophages. General aim of this thesis was to investigate connection between impaired levels of nutrients and pro-inflammatory statue and activation of immune cells in healthy (obese and lean) subjects. In the Part one of this thesis, we analyzed acute reaction of immune cells in circulation and AT on artificially elevated levels of nutrients, imitating its increased values typical for metabolic syndrome. HFM ingestion led to...
Role of adiponectin and B-type natriuretic peptide in the regulation of adipose tissue lipolysis
Wedellová, Zuzana ; Štich, Vladimír (advisor) ; Kunešová, Marie (referee) ; Cahová, Monika (referee) ; Horáková, Olga (referee)
Obesity is a most common metabolic disorder worldwide. Prevalence of obesity is consistently growing in all continents during last years. Primarily the increase of incidence of obesity in children is alarming. Obesity is linked to elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, some cancers and disorders of musculoskeletal system. The cost of the treatment of diseases linked to obesity is annually increasing and obesity represents very important part of costs of health system in developed - and recently also developing - countries. This fact shows the necessity of research in the area of preventive and therapeutic procedures. The development of metabolic disturbances linked to obesity is associated with dysfunction of adipose tissue. Its two main features are: 1) altered secretion of specific substance with hormonal or paracrinne charakter (called adipokines) and 2) elevated mobilization of non- esterified fatty acids (NEMK) from adipose tissue and subsequently their increased release into the circulation (1). In our studies we paid attention to the study of lipolysis. The rate of lipolysis is the primary factor that determines the release of NEFA from adipose tissue. We focused to a role of adiponectin and natriuretic peptid type B (BNP) in the regulation of lipolysis in...
Regulation of VLDL production in the liver
Jirátová, Markéta ; Kovář, Jan (advisor) ; Cahová, Monika (referee)
The aim of this thesis is to summarize current knowledge about VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) assembly. In the first part of this thesis basic characteristics of lipids and lipoproteins are described. Lipids are the most favourable source of energy for animals. Lipoproteins are the macromolecular complexes that transport hydrofobic lipids in plasma. According to their density, they are classified to five groups: chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL. Second part of this thesis is focused on the apolipoproteins - structural peptide components of lipoproteins. The characteristics and functions of major apolipoprotein classes are explained with the main focus on apolipoproteins B that have an important role in VLDL assembly. The process of VLDL assembly is described in detail in the third part of the thesis. VLDL assembly consists of two steps. Pre-VLDL and lipid droplet are synthetized independently in the first step, for which apolipoprotein B-100 and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) are essential. Second step is the fusion of pre-VLDL with the lipid droplet. ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) and phospholipase D (PLD) are the essential components in the second step. Also apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A-V and acyl-coenzym A:cholesterol acyl transferasa 2 (ACAT2) are important. VLDL...
Analysis of the involvement of α2 - AMPK in the beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on obesity - associated metabolic derangements
Jeleník, Tomáš ; Rossmeisl, Martin (advisor) ; Cahová, Monika (referee) ; Pácha, Jiří (referee)
It is well established that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with long chain (n-3 LC-PUFA) have beneficial effects on the obesity-induced metabolic disorders in mice. However, in obese humans, the potency of these fatty acids to positively affect obesity and insulin resistance has been shown to be lower. The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to verify various approaches aimed at increasing efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA and to study the involvement of 2 subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (2-AMPK) in the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Firstly, various chemical derivatives of DHA were tested in mice. Substance-2, the -ethyl ester of DHA, completely prevented and even partially reversed the development of obesity, fat accumulation, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and white adipose tissue inflammation, even though the dose was only 10 % of that normally used in mice for the treatment with n-3 LC-PUFA. Secondly, the combination of n-3 LC-PUFA and a low-dose of anti-diabetic rosiglitazone prevented, in additive manner, development of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, reduced the accumulation of body fat and adipocyte hypertrophy, while inducing adiponectin in mice fed a high-fat diet. This treatment also reversed impaired glucose tolerance in obese mice. The major part...
Mechanisms underlying the development of insulin resistance in liver steatosis
Papáčková, Zuzana ; Cahová, Monika (advisor) ; Macek Jílková, Zuzana (referee)
We tested the hypothesis that triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in the liver induced by short-term high-fat diet (HFD) in rats leads to the dysregulation of endogenous TAG degradation via lysosomal pathway and is causally linked with the development of hepatic insulin resistance. Lysosomal lipase (LAL) is stored in qualitatively different depots (light and dense lysosomes). In contrast to dense lysosomal fraction, LAL associated with light lysosomes exhibits high activity on intracellular TAG and prandial- or diet-dependent regulation. On standard diet, LAL activity was up-regulated in starved and down-regulated in fed animals. In the HFD group, we demonstrated elevated LAL activity, increased TAG content, enhanced production of diacylglycerol and the abolishment of prandial-dependent LAL regulation in light lysosomal fraction. The impairment of insulin signalling and increased activation of PKCε was found in liver of HFD-fed animals. Lipolysis of intracellular TAG, mediated by LAL, is increased in steatosis probably due to the enhanced formation of phagolysosomes. Consequent overproduction of diacylglycerol may represent the causal link between HFD-induced hepatic TAG accumulation and hepatic insulin resistance via PKCε activation.
Integrating Role of Adipose Tissue Secretory Functions in Response to Dietary and Pharmacological Treatments
Macek Jílková, Zuzana ; Kopecký, Jan (advisor) ; Müllerová, Dana (referee) ; Cahová, Monika (referee)
Obesity represents a predominant risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes mellitus and it is characterized by adipocyte hypertrophy. The size of adipocytes influences the adipocytes biology and secretory functions of adipose tissue in general. Understanding the mechanisms regulating growth and secretory activity of adipose tissue is of paramount importance. Moreover, obesity represents a chronic subclinical inflammatory state linking obesity to insulin resistance and hypertrophic adipocytes contribute to this phenomenon. An improvement of strategies used in the prevention and treatment of inflammation associated with obesity is therefore urgently needed. The four studies described in this thesis address several topics related to adipose tissue biology, and thus contributing to the understanding of the integrating role of adipose tissue secretory functions in response to dietary and pharmacological treatments. This thesis demonstrates a possible role of white adipose tissue thyroid hormones (TH) metabolism in the modulation of its function under conditions of changing adiposity (Publication A); a unique role of leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, in the complex control of energy homeostasis of the organism (Publication B); beneficial effects of the combination treatment of...

National Repository of Grey Literature : 12 records found   1 - 10next  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
3 CAHOVÁ, Monika
1 Cahová, Markéta
2 Cahová, Miroslava
2 Cáhová, Miroslava
Interested in being notified about new results for this query?
Subscribe to the RSS feed.