National Repository of Grey Literature 228 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.02 seconds. 
Balance sheet implications of the Czech National Bank’s exchange rate commitment
Franta, Michal ; Holub, Tomáš ; Saxa, Bronislav
We present projections of the Czech National Bank’s balance sheet after the discontinuation of the exchange rate commitment. Our model addresses the situation of a large central bank balance sheet with assets consisting almost exclusively of foreign exchange reserves in the circumstances of a catching-up economy exhibiting an exchange rate appreciation trend. Apart from the baseline projection, several counter-factual scenarios are discussed. The scenarios concern the evolution of the balance sheet in the cases of no exchange rate commitment and a commitment with earlier discontinuation. The simulated counter-factual duration of negative CNB equity, and thus the period of no profit distribution to the government, does not differ substantially from the baseline. The fiscal implications of the exchange rate commitment are thus estimated to be relatively small and related only to the period after the year 2030. Our stochastic simulations, however, show that the uncertainty bands are very wide. In addition, we show that the simulation tool can be employed to discuss the consequences of a long-run decline in currency in circulation, the composition of the asset side and the resumption of foreign exchange income sales by the central bank.
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Quantifying the natural rate of interest in a small open economy : the Czech case
Hlédik, Tibor ; Vlček Jan
We identify the natural rate of interest in the Czech Republic as the real rate consistent with output at its equilibrium level and inflation at the target. To identify the rate, we use a (semi-)structural model featuring rational expectations and a forward-looking interest rate rule. Compared to the mainstream literature, the model provides a comprehensive set of cross-restrictions with respect to unobserved variables, including that of the natural rate. Furthermore, we argue that the natural rate of interest in a small open economy is a function of equilibrium real growth adjusted for equilibrium real exchange rate appreciation. Our findings suggest that the natural interest rate in the Czech Republic was around 1 percent in 2017. The current decline of the natural rate from its peak in 2015 mainly reflects the renewed appreciation of the equilibrium real exchange rate on the back of robust real GDP growth.
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What drives the distributional dynamics of client interest rates on consumer loans in the Czech Republic?: a bank-level analysis
Hlaváček, Michal ; Brož Václav
We study the bank-level distributional dynamics and factors of client interest rates on consumer loans in the Czech Republic. We take into account that client interest rates can have different fixation periods, focus on the consumer loans category, which exhibits multimodal client interest rate distributions, and employ an alternative measure to the mean interest rate – the mode measure. We show that in recent years, most banks in the Czech Republic have started to provide new consumer loans at unprecedentedly low client interest rates. The bank-level analysis then reveals that reduced market concentration (increased market competition) and to some extent also accommodative monetary policy and changes in the market for housing loans and mortgages have been driving this development. Our results are in line with the international literature but are novel in the Czech context.
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A Profit-to-provisioning approach to setting the countercyclical capital buffer: the Czech example
Hodula, Martin ; Pfeifer, Lukáě
Over the last few years, national macroprudential authorities have developed different strategies for setting the countercyclical capital buffer (CCyB) rate in the banking sector. The existing approaches are based on various indicators used to identify the current phase of the financial cycle. However, to our knowledge, there is no approach that directly takes into consideration banks’ prudential behavior over the financial cycle as well as cyclical risks in the banking sector. In this paper, we propose a new profit-to-provisioning approach that can be used in the macroprudential decision-making process. We construct a new set of indicators that largely capture the risk of cyclicality of profit and loan loss provisions. We argue that banks should conserve a portion of the cyclically overestimated profit (non-materialized expected loss) in their capital during a financial boom. We evaluate the performance of our newly proposed indicators using two econometric exercises. Overall, they exhibit good statistical properties, are relevant to the CCyB decision-making process, and may contribute to a more precise assessment of both systemic risk accumulation and risk materialization. We believe that the relevance of the profit-to-provisioning approach and the related set of newly proposed indicators increases under IFRS 9.
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Asset prices in a production economy with long-run and idiosyncratic risk
Sutóris, Ivan
This paper studies risk premia in an incomplete-markets economy with households facing idiosyncratic consumption risk. If the dispersion of idiosyncratic risk varies over the business cycle and households have a preference for early resolution of uncertainty, asset prices will be affected not only by news about current and expected future aggregate consumption (as in models with a representative agent), but also by news about current and future changes in the cross-sectional distribution of individual consumption. I investigate whether this additional effect can help explain high risk premia in a production economy where the aggregate consumption process is endogenous and thus can potentially be affected by the presence of idiosyncratic risk. Analyzing a neoclassical growth model combined with Epstein-Zin preferences and a tractable form of household heterogeneity, I find that countercyclical idiosyncratic risk increases the risk premium, but also effectively lowers the willingness of households to engage in intertemporal substitution and thus changes the dynamics of aggregate consumption. Nevertheless, with the added flexibility of Epstein-Zin preferences, it is possible both to increase risk premia and to maintain the same dynamics of quantities if we allow for higher intertemporal elasticity of substitution at the individual level.
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Spillovers from euro area monetary policy: a focus on emerging Europe
Benecká, Soňa ; Fadajeva, Ludmila ; Feldkircher, Martin
This paper investigates the international effects of a euro area monetary policy shock, focusing on countries from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe (CESEE). To that end, we use a global vector autoregressive (GVAR) model and employ shadow rates as a proxy for the monetary policy stance during normal and zero-lower-bound periods. We propose a new way of modeling euro area countries in a multi-country framework, accounting for joint monetary policy, and a novel approach to simultaneously identifying shocks. Our results show that in most euro area and CESEE countries, prices adjust and output falls in response to a euro area monetary tightening, but with a substantial degree of heterogeneity.
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Non-base wage components as a source of wage adaptability to shocks: evidence from European firms, 2010–2013
Babecký, Jan ; Berson, Clémence ; Fadejeva, Ludmila ; Lamo, Ana ; Marotzke, Petra ; Martins Fernando ; Strzelecki Pawel
This paper provides evidence on the role of non-base wage components as a channel for firms to adjust labour costs in the event of adverse shocks. It uses data from a firm-level survey for 25 European countries that covers the period 2010–2013. We find that firms subject to nominal wage rigidities, which prevent them from adjusting base wages, are more likely to cut non-base wage components in order to adjust labour costs when needed. Firms thus use non-base wage components as a buffer to overcome base wage rigidity. We further show that while non-base wage components exhibit some degree of downward rigidity, they do so to a lesser extent than base wages.
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Firm investment, financial constraints and monetary transmission: an investigation with Czech firm-level data
Babecká Kucharčuková, Oxana ; Pašalićová, Renata
This project investigates the effect of financial constraints and monetary policy on firms’ investment behaviour using Czech firm-level data. The empirical specification is based on the dynamic neoclassical investment model, which explains investment by sales and cash flow. In addition, it includes financial constraints and other factors. We differentiate firms according to their size and type of economic activity. We find that indebtedness and availability of liquidity have significant effects on investment. In the post-crisis period firms obtained less additional credit due to greater riskiness and tended to accumulate more liquidity. Expectations about future GDP growth and business sentiment are positively related to investment. At the same time, we observe considerable heterogeneity of the results across sectors. The impact of the short-term real interest rate is highly significant for firms of all sizes and in all important sectors of the Czech economy, reflecting monetary policy effectiveness.
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Are the risk weights of banks in the Czech Republic procyclical?: evidence from wavelet analysis
Brož, Václav ; Pfeifer, Lukáš ; Kolcunová, Dominika
We analyze the cyclicality of risk weights of banks in the Czech Republic from 2008 to 2016. We differentiate between risk weights under the internal ratings-based and those under the standardized approach, consider both the business cycle and the financial cycle, and employ wavelet coherence as a means of dynamic correlation analysis. Our results indicate that the risk weights of exposures under the internal ratings-based approach, including risk weights related to exposures secured by real estate collateral, are procyclical with respect to the financial cycle. We also show that the effect of changing asset quality on risk weights is present for the internal ratings-based approach, in line with our expectations based on regulatory standards. Our results can be employed for the purposes of decision-making on the activation of supervisory and macroprudential instruments, including the countercyclical capital buffer.
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Wage dynamics and financial performance: evidence from Czech firms
Babecký, Jan ; Galuščák, Kamil ; Žigraiová, Diana
This paper examines how the financial performance of a firm affects its wage policy. For this purpose, we match data on Czech firms from the Wage Dynamics Network survey covering the period 2010–2013 with balance sheet data. Controlling for a number of firm-specific characteristics and the environment in which firms operate, we find that financial performance matters for wage setting: contractual wages are more likely to grow in firms with a higher ratio of cash flow to total assets and in firms that invest more. Conversely, firms that froze or cut contractual wages during the survey period had lower cash flow over total assets, but not necessarily a lower investment ratio. The flexible wage component exhibits a similar pattern, but is more sensitive to demand shocks and firms’ financial conditions.
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