National Repository of Grey Literature 53 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Thyroid hormones, their importance and exposure to cold
Špínová, Šárka ; Žurmanová, Jitka (advisor) ; Krulová, Magdaléna (referee)
Thyroid hormones are essential mainly for prenatal development and they maintain the homeostasis of many organs and body processes in adulthood. Therefore, the correct function of the regulatory axis between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and thyroid gland is very important. Lack of these hormones is manifested, for example, by the formation of goiter, cretenism and bradycardia, excess in weight loss, ophthalmopathy, excessive sweating, tachycardia and also goiter formation. A serious problem is also the mutation of thyroid hormone receptors in target tissues. It causes nervous system disorders, hearing, vision, digestive system, incorrect cardiac function, delayed growth and mental development. Thyroid hormones are essential for the formation and activation of brown adipose tissue. This, together with the shivering thermogenesis of skeletal muscle, is involved in facultative thermogenesis, helping homoeothermic mammals to maintain a constant body core temperature. In addition, brown adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ that secretes active substances called batokines upon cold activation. Batokines have beneficial effects in the treatment of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. So we can assume that cold adaptation could effectively help in the treatment of civilization...
Cardioprotective effect of adaptations to hypoxia and cold: Connexin 43 and hexokinase 2
Kohútová, Jana ; Žurmanová, Jitka (advisor) ; Radošinská, Jana (referee) ; Barančík, Miroslav (referee)
Ventricular arrhythmias are the main cause of death worldwide. An increased incidence of arrhythmias in the heart of mammals is accompanied by a remodeling of the cellular distribution gap between the channels of mainly connexin 43 (Cx43). Recently has been demonstrated significant effect of mitochondria and their association with arrhythmogenesis. Various pathological conditions alter the expression and / or distribution of Cx43, depending on the phosphorylation status. but also on altering the association of hexokinase with mitochondria, which reduces the likelihood of apoptosis activation. Adaptation to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia potentiates endogenous pathways reducing the incidence of ventricular arteries, whereas continuous normobaric hypoxia does not have this effect. Another studied model is cold acclimatization, which has been known for several decades by known effects on human health. However, the heart study of these models in relation to Cx43 is missing. Our goal was to determine the expression of Cx43, phosphorylated Cx43 (p-Cx43) and hexokinase (HK1, HK2) and their distribution in cardiomyocytes. In addition, the expression of Cx43 upstream kinases, protein kinase A, protein kinase G, casein kinase 1 in normoxic and hypoxic left ventricles of rats, along with Cx43 distribution...
The role of mitochondrial genome in cardioprotection induced by the adaptation to chronic hypoxia
Nedvědová, Iveta ; Žurmanová, Jitka (advisor) ; Polák, Jan (referee) ; Čížková, Dana (referee)
Cardiovascular intervention studies are a very important issue given that the ischaemic heart disease is one of the main mortality and morbidity causes in the Western world. Cardioprotection is mediated through a variety of signalling pathways in the cell that may directly or indirectly affect energy metabolism and mitochondria. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury of the heart significantly affect mitochondrial function revealing a potential therapeutic target. The role of mitochondria in the myocardium is not only in the field of energy homeostasis, but also in mediating the cellular response to reduced oxygen supply and in apoptosis regulation. This thesis aims to elucidate the response of the hypertrophied heart of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and the derived conplastic strain with mitochondrial genome of normotensive Brown Norway (SHR-mtBN ) to the cardioprotective regime of adaptation to chronic normobaric hypoxia (CNH, Fi 0.1). The adaptive changes were studied at the cellular, protein and gene levels using Real-time RT-PCR, Biomark Chip Analysis, Western Blot, spectrophotometric measurements of enzyme activity and quantitative immunofluorescence analyses. The present thesis was based on a different cardioprotective phenotype between SHR and SHR-mtBN strains, i.e. a significantly smaller...
The role of energy metabolism in cardioprotection induced by the adaptation to chronic hypoxia
Kolář, David ; Žurmanová, Jitka (advisor) ; Adamcová, Michaela (referee) ; Bardová, Kristina (referee)
Cardiac energy metabolism is the one of the most complex system in the body. To sustain life, but also to respond quickly to any sudden changes (e.g. running, emotional stress), the heart has developed a unique ability and has become a metabolic "omnivore". At physiological conditions, long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) present the major energetic source for the adult myocardium. However, the cardiac energy metabolism may be compromised during pathophysiological states. One of the most dangerous is, undoubtedly, ischaemia-reperfusion injury with its acute form, myocardial infarction. However, the adaptation to chronic hypoxia has been known for decades for its cardioprotective effect against I/R. Changes of cardiac energy metabolism induced by the adaptation have not been fully explored and the system conceals still too many secrets. This thesis has aimed to determine how adaptation to chronic hypoxia affects the cardiac metabolism of the rat LVs in the following set-ups: 1. The effect of chronic normobaric hypoxia (CNH; 3 weeks, 5500m) during a brief I/R protocol in vitro on the protein kinase B/hexokinase (Akt/HK) pathway, including the expression and phosphorylation of Akt, the expression and localization of HK, the expression of mitochondrial creatine kinase (mtCKS), and the level of Bcl-2 family...
The effect of acute cold and permanent light to left ventricular of the rat heart
Vítková, Ivana ; Žurmanová, Jitka (advisor) ; Bendová, Zdeňka (referee)
Acute cold exposure increases the risk of sudden cardiac events, similarly exposure to constant light negatively affects the cardiovascular system. However, the individual effects of these factors and the effect of their combination on cardiomyocytes are not yet known. The thesis deals with the influence of a 3 day cold exposure and constant light on the expression of β-adrenergic receptors and associated G-proteins in association with apoptotic signals in the left ventricle of the Wistar rat heart. In this work apoptotic proteins BAX, BCL2, caspase 8 and important components of β-adrenergic signalization - β1, β2, G-proteins, Gas, Gi1/2 and Gi3 were determined. The relative expression of the proteins was analyzed by Western blotting. The results confirm the detrimental effect of cold and light exposure. However, the synergistic effect of these two stressors shows surprising results.
The role of creatine and branched chain amino acids supplementation in muscle physiology and its possible clinical use
Zacpálek, Pavel ; Žurmanová, Jitka (advisor) ; Heleš, Mário (referee)
(in English) Creatine kinase system could be considered the energetic frontline of a cell. It creates and maintains a cellular energy storage and at the same time enables the very fastest response to a high energy demand. Aims of this thesis were to thoroughly describe the creatine kinase system, its role in the energy metabolism and metabolism of creatine molecule itself. As a popular nutritional supplement, there was an emphasis on creatine's impact on the physiology of skeletal muscle and also its higher intake. Furthermore some of the creatine-related disorders were described, as well as research of their treatment. Lastly, the branch-chained amino acids were researched for possible synergic effect with creatine, connection between these two was found through the mTOR signalling pathway.
The role of Arachidonic acid metabolites in cardiovascular system and signaling of heart failure
Liptáková, Andrea ; Žurmanová, Jitka (advisor) ; Holzerová, Kristýna (referee)
Arachidonic acid (AA) is polyunsaturated acid that plays an important role in regulation of physiology, bioenergetic and signalling cascades in the heart. AA released by phospholipase A2-catalysed hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids serves as substrate for cyclooxygenase, lipooxygenase and cytochrome P450 epoxygenase to produce a wide spectrum of lipid second messengers, eicosanoids. These very biologically potent molecules regulate a number of cellular processes in the cardiovascular system and changes in their composition and concentration significantly contribute to heart failure. The aim of this thesis was to summarize current knowledge about the role of AA in failing heart. Keywords : Heart, Arachidonic Acid, Heart Failure, Eicosanoids, Cardiovascular System
Organization of myofibrillar PCr/CK system in skeletal muscle
Žurmanová, Jitka ; Mejsnar, Jiří (advisor) ; Nováková, Olga (referee) ; Neckář, Jan (referee)
5. SUMMARYOFRESULTES Áll resultshavebeenpublishedor acceptedin joumalswith IF. Ite list of publicďionis enclosedin thechaoter6. 1) Lcvcls of cneigr-rclated metabolitcsin intect and isolated pcrfuscd-supcrfused rrt ske|ctálmusc|e*(ŠteÍleta],1991) AdenosineS'.triphosphate(ATP), phosphocreatine(PCr), creatirre(Cr), ínorganicphosphate (Pi),lactate(LAC), pyruvate(PYR) andglycogenasglucose(GLU) weredeterminedandfree adenosineS'-diphosptrate(ADP) was calculatedtom ATP:creatinephosphokinase(CPK) reactionin the gracilis muscleof cold.acc|imatedrďs in vivo. and in completelyisoIated mrsc|esundermediumperfusionandzuperfusionínvito, rsing thefreeze-clampingmetlrcd. Themeanin vivo leve|s(pmoVgw.w.)were:ATP 4.8'PCr 12.0.Cr 7,8'Pi ló.l' LAc l.6' PYR 0.09,GLU 22.9,ADP 0,62x t0-3.[solationof the muscle(about11min of anox'a fo|lowedby perfision irrthe air with a highpo2 Inedium)decreasedmacroergicphosphďe levels(ATP 3.0.PCr 8.3).Inisolatedmusclesperfusedwitha highpO2medium(99kPaOz, perflrion rate70 pl/mitt)andsimultaneouslysupeďusedwitha low po2medium(ó.2kPao2' 2.3mVmin)at28oC in vitrothelevelsof metaboliteswere(pmoUgw.w.):ATP 3.1,PCr 8.5, Cr 5.ó.Pi 9'2, |Ac 2.|' PYR 0.l9. GLU 6.6'ADP 0.44x l0(.]).Themeansteadyoxygen upuke of the íso|atedmusclewas 97 nmol 02 x min.l x g.l w.w. Ttrus.thelevelsof macroergicphosphatesand their...

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