National Repository of Grey Literature 22 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Structural and pharmacological determinants of NMDA receptor channel gating
Ladislav, Marek ; Krůšek, Jan (advisor) ; Bendová, Zdeňka (referee) ; Zemková, Hana (referee)
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are heterotetramers containing two obligatory glycine-binding (GluN1) and two glutamate/glycine-binding (GluN2/3) subunits. These receptors mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and play a key role in high order neuronal processes as a learning and formation of memory. It has been shown that dysregulation of NMDARs is involved in the pathophysiology of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Each receptor is composed of four protomers exhibiting a conserved domain organization. The most distal part to the cell membrane is the amino-terminal domain that is linked to the ligand binding domain (LBD), which is connected to the pore-forming transmembrane domain (TMD) communicating with the intracellular carboxy-terminal domain. LBD and TMD are connected via three polypeptide chains - linkers. Channel opening is the key step in the NMDAR gating that allows the flux of ions across the membrane. The energy of agonist binding-evoked conformational changes is transferred via linkers to M3 helices forming an ion channel. The rearrangement of M3 helices in activated receptor makes the central cavity of the channel accessible. The details of energy transfer are not yet fully characterized, although accurate knowledge of the receptor gating...
Incidence and role of the purinergic P2X7 receptor in the immune system
Piskačová, Kateřina ; Zemková, Hana (advisor) ; Červená, Kateřina (referee)
It has been shown recently that extracellular ATP and its metabolite adenosine are key mediators in the immune system. Depending on the concentration, ATP may act as an activator or an inhibitor to the immune response, whereas adenosine is generally well known as a specific immunosupressor. Signals delivered by extracellular ATP and adenosine are detected and transduced by purinergic P2- and P1- receptors, respectively. In principle, all cells of the immune system express P2X, P2Y and adenosine P1 receptors on their plasmatic membrane. Therefore, the purinergic signaling extends to all components of the immune and inflammatory responses, including neurodegenerative diseases. This knowledge triggered a wave of interest in research, development and synthesis of new compounds having effect on P1- and P2- receptors that could help in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. This bachelor thesis will summarize the most recent knowledge on the role of the P2X7 receptor in these processes. This subtype of P2-receptor is unique because it is involved in the release of cytokines from immune cells and plays a role in the cell growth and apoptosis.
Role of reactive cysteines in the activation of the human TRPA1 ion channel
Synytsya, Viktor ; Vlachová, Viktorie (advisor) ; Zemková, Hana (referee)
TRPA1 is a thermosensitive ion channel from the family of TRP (transient receptor potential) receptors. In primary sensory neurons, TRPA1 is an important transducer of painful stimuli, where it contributes to detection of noxious, irritant and inflammatory compounds of endogenous and exogenous origin. The major activation mode of TRPA1 is covalent modification of N-terminal cysteines or lysines by electrophilic compounds. The potency of the electrophilic agonists is increased by voltage dependency of the TRPA1 channel, which contributes substantially during membrane depolarization. To date, the role of several cysteine residues in the N- terminus has been demonstrated. However, the functional role of six cysteines in the transmembrane domain is still unknown. The first part of the thesis focuses on the functional role of the transmembrane cysteines in the activation of human TRPA1 channel. Our results indicate that these sites do not mediate reactive-electrophile-induced activation but four of the six cysteines substantially contribute to voltage-dependent gating of the channel and two participate in calcium-dependent modulation of TRPA1. In the second part of this thesis we aim to explore the proximity of two specific charged residues, located in the linker between the fourth and the fifth...
Role of variable chains at the interface between subunits in forming ATP-binding pocket and function of P2X4 receptor
Tvrdoňová, Vendula ; Zemková, Hana (advisor) ; Novotný, Jiří (referee) ; Vlachová, Viktorie (referee)
7 ABSTRACT Crystallization of the zebrafish P2X4 receptor in both open and closed states revealed conformational differences in the ectodomain structures, including the dorsal fin and left flipper domains. The role of these domains in forming of ATP-binding pocket and receptor function was investigated by using alanine scanning mutagenesis of the R203- L214 (dorsal fin) and the D280-N293 (left flipper) sequences of the rat P2X4 receptor and by examination of the responsiveness to ATP and orthosteric analog agonists 2- (methylthio)adenosine 5'-triphosphate, adenosine 5'-(γ-thio)triphosphate, 2'(3'-O-(4- benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate, and α,β-methyleneadenosine 5'- triphosphate. ATP potency/efficacy was reduced in 15 out of 26 alanine mutants. The R203A, N204A, and N293A mutants were essentially non-functional, but receptor function was restored by ivermectin, an allosteric modulator. The I205A, T210A, L214A, P290A, G291A, and Y292A mutants exhibited significant changes in the responsiveness to orthosteric analog agonists. In contrast, the responsiveness of L206A, N208A, D280A, T281A, R282A, and H286A mutants to analog agonists was comparable to that of the wild type receptor. These experiments, together with homology modeling, indicate that residues of the first group located in the upper part of...
Spontaneous calcium permeability of ionic channel of P2X receptor after substitution ofconserved tyrosine in the 1st transmembrae domajn
Rupert, Marian ; Zemková, Hana (advisor) ; Balík, Aleš (referee)
Purinergic receptors are membrane ion channels that are activated by extracellular ATP. In vertebrates, seven genes encode subunits of P2X receptors. The subunits, designated P2X1-7, are 40 - 50% identical in amino acid sequences. P2X receptors are composed of three subunits and are found as homo- and heterotrimers in tissues of vertebrates. P2X receptors have a wide distribution in the organism, functional receptors are found in neurons, glial cells, muscle cells and also in nonexcitable tissues as epithelial, endothelial, and in hemopoietic tissue. Purinergic signalling plays an important role in pain transmission, at CNS injury and immune processes. P2X receptor subunit consists of two transmembrane domains, extracellular domain and intracellular N-and C-termini. Each transmembrane domain contains two amino acids conserved across all P2X subunits. In the first transmembrane domain receptor P2X2 are that Gly30 and Tyr43. In previous experiments performed on P2X2 receptor, electrophysiological measurements demonstrated that substitution of conserved Tyr43 in the first transmembrane domain with alanine prolongs the deactivation time of ion channel after agonist wash out. This work is focused on clarifying the role of conserved tyrosine in the process of opening and closing of ion channel of P2X...
Functional role of cytoplasmic domains in the gating of TRPA1 channel
Vašková, Jana ; Vlachová, Viktorie (advisor) ; Zemková, Hana (referee)
The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel is expressed in a subset of primary afferent neurones where it is activated by a variety of pungent and chemically reactive compounds such as allyl isothiocyanate or cinnamaldehyde. This voltage- dependent channel is activated through covalent modification of cytoplasmic cysteines and, from the cytoplasmic side, is also critically regulated by calcium ions. Both, amino (N-) and carboxyl (C-) termini have been shown to be involved in these processes. Using electrophysiological and molecular-biology techniques, we explored the role of specific cytoplasmic domains in the activation of TRPA1. By measuring chemically-, voltage-, and calcium-activated membrane TRPA1-mediated currents, we identified highly conserved serine and threonine residues along the N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain, mutation of which strongly affected responses of the channel. In addition, using C-terminally truncated construct previously reported to be involved in calcium regulation, we present a new finding that the distal C-terminal tail contributes to voltage-dependent activation of TRPA1.
Modulatory mechanisms of nociceptive TRP channels
Maršáková, Lenka ; Vlachová, Viktorie (advisor) ; Novotný, Jiří (referee) ; Zemková, Hana (referee)
Detection of painful stimuli in the periphery is mediated by temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels which are expressed in primary afferent endings of free sensory neurons called nociceptors. TRP channels in nociceptors are involved in the detection of thermal, but also mechanical and chemical stimuli. Out of seven known types of temperature-sensitive TRP channels, three are responsible for detecting painful temperatures: vanilloid receptors TRPV1 (> 42 o C) and TRPV2 (> 52 o C) detect noxious heat, and ankyrin receptor TRPA1 detects noxious cold (< 17 o C). Better knowledge of TRP channel mechanisms of action is essential for understanding TRP channel functions and ultimately for the design of potential analgesics. New findings presented in this thesis clarify mechanisms of action of TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors, focusing on camphor and voltage sensitivity of TRPV1 channels and calcium modulation of TRPA1 channels. The first topic discussed in this thesis is the mechanism of camphor sensitivity of TRPV1 receptor. Camphor is a naturally occurring substance known since time immemorial for its effective analgesic properties, yet its mechanism of action is not understood. Camphor is known to be a partial agonist of TRPV1 channel, a full agonist of TRPV3 channel, but also an inhibitor of...
Struktura a funkce rekombinantního P2X4 receptoru
Rokič, Miloš ; Zemková, Hana (advisor) ; Vlachová, Viktorie (referee) ; Bendová, Zdeňka (referee)
4 Abstract Purinergic P2X receptors are membrane ion channels activated by extracellular ATP. There are seven isoforms of mammalian P2X receptors designated as P2X1-7, which according to their structure represent a specific family of ligand gated ionic channels, with extraordinary structural/functional properties. The P2X receptor consists of three subunits and each subunit has two transmembrane domains. Crystalographic data demonstrate that ionic channel pore is situated between the second transmembrane domains. Crystal structure of P2X4 receptor from the zebrafish (Danio rerio) is available in both open and closed state of the channel and the exact structure of ATP binding site is solved. The aim of this thesis was to study the structure-function relationships in a model of recombinant P2X4 receptor of the rat. By employing the point mutagenesis and electrophysiological recording, the functional importance of conserved cysteine residues in the ectodomain and amino acid residues which form the extracellular vestibule was investigated. All ten cysteins were substituted one by one with alanine or threonine and ATP-induced currents were measured from HEK293T cells expressing wild type (WT) and mutated P2X4 receptors. The results indicate that C116A, C126A, C149A and C165A mutations disrupt two disulfide bonds...
Mechanisms of activation and modulation of vanilloid TRP channels
Boukalová, Štěpána ; Vlachová, Viktorie (advisor) ; Hock, Miroslav (referee) ; Zemková, Hana (referee)
Štěpána Boukalová Mechanisms of activation and modulation of vanilloid TRP channels TRPV1 and TRPV3 are thermosensitive ion channels from the vanilloid subfamily of TRP receptors. TRPV1, which is primarily expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons, is an important transducer of painful stimuli and is also involved in the detection of noxious heat. TRPV3 is expressed mainly in the skin where it regulates proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. Similarly to voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels, TRP receptors are comprised of four subunits, each with six transmembrane segments (S1-S6). Using mutational approach, we tried to elucidate the role of S1 in TRPV1 functioning. Our results indicate that the extracellular portion of S1 plays a crucial role in TRPV1 gating. TRPV1 channels with a conservative mutation of positively charged residue in this region (R455K substitution) were overactive. However, they were neither activated nor potentiated by low pH; on the contrary, protons stabilized the closed conformation of this mutant channel. Very similar phenotypic properties were found in other TRPV1 mutants with substitution in S4/S5-S5 region and in the pore helix. In Kv channels, extracelular portion of S1 forms a small contact surface with the pore helix, which allows efficient transmission of...

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