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Artificial Vocal Folds for Source Voice Generation
Vašek, Martin ; Vampola, Tomáš (referee) ; Kamenický, Ján (referee) ; Mišun, Vojtěch (advisor)
The first part of this work focuses on ways to replace missing source voice in case of patients after total laryngectomy. The commonly used methods of voice rehabilitation are mentioned. Simple computational models are used to explore several principles of generating artificial source voice. Based on the knowledge of how a healthy human voice is generated, one of the ways to generate artificial source voice was chosen – a reed-based element in the configuration (-, +). The function of the reed-based element is based on a periodic bending of the reed and in the airflow cutoff created by this motion. The (-,+) configuration of the reed-based element causes a different behaviour, when compared to healthy vocal folds, important is, however, whether the generated acoustic signal has the right spectral characteristics, which enable the generation of voiced vowels of the human speech. Both experimental and computational models are used to study the behaviour of the reed-based element. The design of the experimental model is based on the preliminary experiments with simple reed-based elements, which were carried out at the beginning of my studies. The new experimental model is designed in such a way, that it enables changes to the reed geometry and its position towards the reed stop. The measurements carried out on the experimental model are mainly acoustical (measurements of the generated acoustical signal), but optical measurements of the reed´s movement and position are possible and used as well. Because of the nature of the reed-based element´s behavior, the fluid structure interaction must be taken into consideration in the computational model. A two-way model of fluid structure interaction is used between the fluid part of the computational model and the structural one. A partitioned solution is used to solve the fluid-structure interaction. The effect of specific input parameters on the function of both models (experimental and computational) is monitored. The influences of input parameters on the basic frequency of the generated signal (source voice), on the stability of the function and on other important characteristics are evaluated. The final chapters focus on the design of voice prosthesis in general. Some specific issues, which need to be solved when designing voice prosthesis, are highlighted.
Numerical simulation of video-kymographic records of the vocal fold vibration
Vampola, T. ; Horáček, Jaromír
The reconstruction of the video-kymographic records from the numerical simulation of the vocal fold vibration is used for prediction of the type of vocal fold damaged. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) fully parametric model of the human larynx was developed and used for numerical simulation of stresses during vibrating vocal folds with collisions. The complex model consists of the vocal folds, arytenoids, thyroid and cricoid cartilages. The vocal fold tissue is modeled as a three layered transversal isotropic material. The results of numerical simulation of the vocal folds oscillations excited by a prescribed intraglottal aerodynamic pressure are presented. The FE contact elements are used for modelling the vocal folds collisions and the stresses in the vocal fold tissue are computed in time domain. The damaged of the ligament tissue is simulated by the modification of the modulus of elasticity. The video-kymographic records are reconstructed for health and damaged vocal folds. The results show significant dynamic stresses in all there directions (horizontal, vertical and anterior-posterior).
Measurement of vibration, flow and acoustic characteristics of a human larynx replica
Horáček, Jaromír ; Bula, Vítězslav ; Radolf, Vojtěch ; Vampola, T. ; Dušková, Miroslava
The study presents results of in vitro measurements of voicing performed on the developed artificial larynx based on the CT images of human larynx taken during phonation. The measured phonation characteristics are in good agreement with the values found in human larynges. The knowledge of these characteristics for the vocal folds replica can be useful for experimental verification of developed sophisticated 3D computational finite element models of phonation due to relatively exactly defined input material and geometrical parameters, which is problematic to obtain reliably in humans.
Effect of the size of piriform sinuses on the voice quality
Vampola, T. ; Horáček, Jaromír
The influence of piriform sinuses (PS) on the resonance and antiresonance characteristics of the vocal tract is investigated. The change in sizes of PS cavities alters the resulting voice quality. Pilot studies reveal that additional formants caused by PS can occur in the frequency range of 3 – 5 kHz, i.e., in the range which is important for the production of the so called singer’s or speaker’s formant. This contribution therefore aims at investigating the influence of the side cavities of the vocal tract in more detail using two computational models of the vocal tract. First, is presented analysis of the influence of the acoustic spaces of PS on the existence of resonances and antiresonances in the spectra of the acoustic signal simulated using a reduced finite element (FE) model of the human vocal tract. Then the full FE model is used for the analysis by using direct numerical simulations of phonation.
Simulation of the human vocal fold vibrations – sensitivity to the material parameters
Vampola, T. ; Horáček, Jaromír ; Klepáček, I.
A 3D finite element (FE) fully parametric model of the human larynx was developed and used for numerical simulation of vocal folds vibrations excited by a prescribed intraglottal aerodynamic pressure. The complex model consists of the arytenoid, thyroid and cricoid cartilages. The vocal fold tissue is modelled as a three layered orthotropic material and the FE contact elements are used for modelling the vocal folds collisions. The principal and shear stresses on the surface the vocal fold tissue are computed in time domain.
Influence of geometric configurations of the human vocal tract on the voice production
Vampola, T. ; Horáček, Jaromír
The three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of the human vocal tract was constructed, based on CT measurements of a subject phonating on [a:]. A special attention is given to the higher frequency range (above 3.5 Hz) where transversal modes exist between piriform sinuses (PS) and valleculae (VA) and where the higher formants can create a formant cluster known as the speaker’s or singer’s formant. Since the human ear is most sensitive to frequencies between 2 and 4 kHz concentration of sound energy in this frequency region (F4-F5) is effective for communication.
Computer modeling of effects of vocal exercising with a tube on vocal tract sound power transfer
Horáček, Jaromír ; Vampola, T. ; Laukkanen, A. M. ; Švec, J. G.
Two 3D finite element (FE) models were constructed, based on CT measurements of a subject phonating on [a:] before and after phonation into a tube. Acoustic analysis was performed exciting the models by acoustic flow velocity at the vocal folds. The generated acoustic pressure of the response was computed in front of the mouth and inside the vocal tract for both FE models. Average amplitudes of the pressure oscillations inside the vocal tract and in front of the mouth were compared to display a cost-efficiency of sound energy transfer at different formant frequencies. Comparison of the pressure oscillation inside and outside the vocal tract showed that formants differ in their efficiency, F4 (at about 3.5 kHz, i.e. at the speaker’s or singer’s formant region) being the most effective. The results suggest that exercising on semi-occlusions help in improving the vocal economy.
1D modeling of the influence of velopharyngeal insufficiency on phonation of vowels
Radolf, Vojtěch ; Vampola, T.
Velopharyngeal insufficiency is modeled in frequency domain by the transfer matrix method in connection with conical acoustical elements. The vocal tract is considered as a branched system with two nasal ducts. The influence of viscous losses and radiation impedance both at the level of the lips and at the level of the nostrils are considered. Configuration of the vocal tract corresponds to the vowel /a:/. The modal analysis is performed and the results are compared with those gained from 3D FEM models.
Napěťová analýza lidských hlasivek
Vampola, T. ; Horáček, Jaromír
A three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) fully parametric model of the human larynx was developed and used for numerical simulation of stresses during vibrating vocal folds the collisions. The complex model consists of the vocal folds, arytenoids, thyroid and cricoid cartilages. The vocal fold tissue is modelled as a three layered orthotropic material. The results of numerical simulation of the vocal folds oscillations excited by a prescribed intraglottal aerodynamic pressure are presented. The FE contact elements are used modelling the vocal folds collisions and the principal and shear stresses are computed in time domain on the surface and inside the vocal fold tissue. The results show significant dynamic stresses in all there directions and comparable maxima of Von Mises stresses were obtained for closed and open phases of the vocal folds motion.
MKP model akustických prostor a analýza lidského vokálního traktu pro normální a zpěvný hlas-předběžná studie
Vampola, T. ; Horáček, Jaromír ; Krupa, P. ; Švec, J. G. ; Havlík, R. ; Lejska, M.
The contribution deals with the design of the FE models of the human vocal tract for phonation of the vowel /a:/ without and with the singerś formant. Significant changes in the dimensions of the acoustic spaces of the vocal tract and in the basic acoustic frequency-modal characteristics of the models due to the existence of the singerś formant are presented. The models were developed from the MRI measurements of the singer during phonation with and without the singerś formant.

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15 Vampola, T.