National Repository of Grey Literature 218 records found  previous11 - 20nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Determination of substances in phytopharmaceuticals
Ivanishchanka, Iryna ; Řezáčová, Veronika (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
In the bachelor thesis, herbal teas, the main components of which are St. John's Wort and Lemon balm, were analyzed. The physiological properties, the chemical composition and the influence on human health were monitored. Thesis deals method of isolation and identification of essentials oils from out of selected teas to calm the nervous system. For isolation of essentials oils there are used methods solvent extraction, solid phase microextraction (SPME) and steam distillation, for identification there is gas chromatography (GC/MS). Isolation methods for obtaining essential oils from plant matrices were assessed and the most appropriate isolation techniques was determined by solid phase microextraction (SPME)
Determination of selected substances in phytopharmaceuticals
Hroncová, Michala ; Švestková, Tereza (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
Thyme, linden and cuban oregano are plant that have positive effect of upper respiratory tract infections. The most common are used in the form of teas and syrups. In this thesis were analyzed methods, which are used to specify substances in plants. It describe methods like stem distillation, SPME and GC/MS. The main aim of the thesis was found out subsances, which occur in herbs. Thymol was the substance which was found in every analyzed herb. The thyme contain o-cymen, in mixture of thyme was proofed thymol, borneol, 1-octene- 3- ol, linalol, estragol a 4- terpeneol. The linden has substances estragol a - terpinen. Characteristic substancies od the mixture of linden were o-cymen, estragol a - terpinen. In the cuban oregano were proofed – pinen, camphor, - terpinen. The method SPME was used to analyzed substances in syrup and main substances were thymol a -elemen.
Plastics and microplastics and their influence on biota of ecosystems
Románeková, Ivana ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the influence of plastics and microplastics on the environment. The aims of this thesis is to work out a literature review focused on plastics with emphasis on microplastics and on their negative influence on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem and organisms that are living there. Then on the basis of acquired knowledge, propose a battery of ecotoxicological tests.
Options determination of synthetic fragrances in wastewater
Kašparová, Jarmila ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
Synthetic fragrances (musk) are artificially made organic compounds, which are used as fragrances in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The presence of musk is proven in all environmental compartments. However, the greatest attention is paid to purified waste water, which is a frequent source of pollution of surface water. The physico-chemical properties of musk compounds cause their accumulation in the living and non-living components of the ecosystem, where they behave as persistent pollutants. The presented bachelor thesis deals with the problem of determining individual musk compounds of all groups side by side. In the bachelor thesis, nineteen musk compounds of four groups, nitromusk compounds, macrocyclic musk compounds, linear musk compounds, polycyclic musk compounds were studied. The basis of this work was to optimize the method for determining all groups of musk compounds side by side, evaluating and interpreting the results. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used as a method for extracting analytes. Gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry was used for the final analysis, as a detector was used for a Time of flight analyzer.
Hormones in sewage sludge
Jagošová, Klára ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Čáslavský, Josef (advisor)
Currently there is a spate of interest in the presence of pharmacologically active substances in the environment. These substances are excreted in active or metabolized form and with wastewater pass the wastewater treatment plant. Current treatment technologies do not always eliminate all pharmaceuticals effectively and therefore they enter the environment. One of these active groups is the group of steroid hormones. Steroid hormones belong to the group of endocrine disruptors and they are considered to be dangerous for the ecosystems. Due to the hydrophobic character of steroid hormones they undergo partial or total sorption from wastewater to sludge. Sewage sludge is the by product of wastewater treatment and contains heavy metals, organic contaminants and pathogenic bacteria. A part of produced sewage sludge is used as a fertilizer in the Czech Republic. This issue follows the regulation 347/2016 – conditions of agricultural use of sewage sludge. Waste policy of EU will alter the conditions of sludge disposal, so it is necessary to obtain data about the concentration levels, fate and behaviour of those pollutants. This thesis was focused on five natural female hormones and four synthetic, which are used as a part of contraceptive pills and substitutional hormonal therapy. Determination of hormones was performed in four steps including ultrasonic assisted extraction, clean up by solid phase extraction, derivatization and final analysis by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry on triple quadrupole in MS/MS mode.
Possibilities of elimination of sulfonamides from the aquatic ecosystem
Suková, Petra ; Mravcová, Ludmila (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This diploma thesis focuses on the determination of sulfonamide antibiotics especially the possibility of elimination of these substances from the aquatic ecosystem. Nowadays, environmental contamination of the pharmaceuticals and their residues is a serious concern. Main sources of this contamination are wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), where these compounds are not effectively removed by contemporary conventional technology. For this reason, new methods are being developed and tested that could eliminate the number of contaminants entering the environment in this way. There is a possibility to use the potential of the enzymatic system of wood-decay fungi, especially white rot fungi. Six representatives of sulfonamide antibiotics were selected and isolated from the aquatic matrix via solid phase extraction. The final identification and quantification method was high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Monitoring of the concentration level of selected sulfonamide antibiotics at the inflow and effluent at the Brno-Modřice WWTP was carried out weekly. Moreover, the effectiveness of elimination of selected antibiotics from the aquatic ecosystem by the use of Trametes versicolor wood-decay fungi cultured on a suitable carrier was verified.
Removal of selected organic pollutants from water using advanced oxidation processes
Dalajková, Nikola ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Repková, Martina (advisor)
The aim of this diploma thesis is the determination of selected organic pollutants with a focus on artificial sweeteners in waste water from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) Modřice and the subsequent degradation of the thus obtained concentrations in model water using advanced oxidation processes (AOP). Two sweeteners were determined, namely sucralose and saccharin found in waste water. Synthetic sweeteners are not sufficiently cleaned in the WWTP and penetrate the environment. Effective processes for removing organic substances, including alternative sweeteners, are AOP processes. These processes are based on reactions of highly reactive hydroxyl radical (OH·), which is produced by many chemical reactions. Generally, they use ozone (O3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). On sampling, wastewater samples were treated with Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) and then evaluated by HPLC/MS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). In observing the degradation of selected sweeteners, three AOP methods were used: O3/UV, H2O2/UV and O3/H2O2. For each of these methods, the efficiency of degradation of sucralose and saccharin was investigated. From the evaluated data it was found that the most efficient AOP process for removing artificial sweeteners from water is the O3/H2O2 method.
Ecotoxicity of Firefighting foam
Belisová, Mária ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with ecotoxicity of selected fire extinguishing agents concentrated on surface-active agents (surfactants) contained in foam fire extinguishers. Tested substances were solid humectants TS TURBO and TS ECO. In this bachelor thesis the ecotoxicological effects were assessed through aquatic ecotoxicity tests with an aquatic plant Lemna minor and a crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus. They are fresh-water organisms on which the water contamination can be quickly and quite easily assessed. Also these fire extinguishers were tested for acute ecotoxicity of soil organisms by ecotoxicological contact tests with Eisenia fetida and seeds of Lactuca sativa. Finally, the biodegradation of both fire extinguishing agents was tested, observing the change between 24 hour exposition and one month exposition of tested agents. The change of toxicity was tested with Thamnocephalus platyurus. Based on experimental results of extinguishing agents the value of LC50 and IC50 was calculated and the ecotoxicity was compared.
Drugs and possibility of their elimination in sewage waters
Křivánková, Zuzana ; Repková, Martina (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with issue of increasing consumption of pharmaceuticals and its influence on the environment. In the Czech Republic the pharmaceuticals from the benzodiazepine group are still widely prescribed and used by patients. There was tracked four representatives of this group alprazolam, bromazepam, diazepam and oxazepam which are indicated for therapy of insomnia, psychiatric diseases but also like a general anesthetics or antiepileptics. Presence of this pharmaceuticals is being repeatedly confirmed in wastewaters and surface waters troughout the whole Europe and other developed countries even though their negative effects for the water ecosystem are known. The target od this thesis is to optimalizethe methods for determination of choosen pharmaceuticals in watewaters in Brno and surrounded area. There was also evaluatedthe hazard level for water ecosystem related to the presence of pharmaceuticals in target matrices which were the wastewaters from wastewater treatment plants in towns Brno – Modřice and from two another towns in south Moravia. Concentrations of the pharmaceuticals were tracked in the influents and effluents. The analytes were isolated from the matrices by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and quantificated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with detection by the diode array (DAD).
Ecotoxicity of cholesterol-lowering-drugs
Königsmarková, Kristýna ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
This bachelor thesis is focused on the ecotoxicological testing of blood cholesterol lowering drugs. At first it considers the issue from a theoretical point of view – describes the effect of residual drugs on the environment, the distribution of hypolipidemics, the risks of elevated cholesterol, then deals with ecotoxicology and introduces the principles of ecotoxicological testing. In the experimental part, these following drugs were tested: Corsim, Atoris, Lipanthyl Supra, Lipanthyl 267M. In addition, clofibric acid – the metabolite of fibrates was tested. Residues of these drugs are found mainly in the aquatic ecosystem, that is why tests of aquatic organisms have been used to evaluate ecotoxicity. Test organisms were Thamnocephalus platyurus, Lemna minor and Vibrio fischeri. LC50, EC50 and IC50 values were determined on the basis of test results. Using these values, the ecotoxicity of the above mentioned hypolipidemics was evaluated.

National Repository of Grey Literature : 218 records found   previous11 - 20nextend  jump to record:
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