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Removal efficiency of selected drugs by various sorptive materials from water
Štofko, Jakub ; Mravcová, Ludmila (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This thesis deals with sorption of selected drugs from model water by various sorption materials. Contamination of water resources by the pharmaceutical industry is a major problem today. Wastewater treatment plants, whose technological processes are unable to completely remove them, have a significant share in the penetration of these substances into the environment. At present, attention is paid to alternative materials that are capable of eliminating these substances. One of the potential sorption materials is biochar as one of the main pyrolysis products. This work focused on the assessment of the sorption properties of the different types of biochar and commercially used active charcoal. The sorption properties of the individual materials were compared with respect to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory substance ibuprofen and the sulphonamide antibiotic sulfamethoxazole. The results of vial experiments were analysed on a liquid chromatograph with mass detection.
Ecotoxicological assessment of biochar from sewage sludge
Kotzurová, Iveta ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
The aim of this diploma thesis is to assess the ecotoxicological effect of biochar produced from sewage sludge. In case of application of biochar to agricultural land, both the soil and aquatic ecosystem may be affected therefore contact and aquatic tests were chosen to assess the ecotoxicological effects. Representatives of soil invertebrates were earthworms Eisenia fetida; Daphnia magna and Artemia salina were chosen from aquatic animals and terrestrial plants were represented by Lactuca sativa, Sinapis alba and Allium cepa. The results of contact tests point out how ecosystem could be negatively affected by biochar dose. Through aqueous extract were shown differences in sensitivity of individual organisms in aquatic tests. Dried sewage sludge was found to be the biggest burden for all tested organisms. The pelletized biochar with the addition of an additive showed the lowest negative effect on tested organisms.
Determination of organic compounds in biochar produced by microwave torrefaction of biomass
Meindl, Jiří ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Mravcová, Ludmila (advisor)
The thesis is focused on a determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in dried pelletized sewage sludge and pelletized biochar. Biochars were made in mild conditions by microwave torrefaction of prepared sewage sludge. There were analyzed and quantified the 34 of standardized PAHs compounds in two series. The first serie, also called “Sada 1”, has been aimed at comparison of extraction methods for the chosen sample of sewage sludge and the sample of biochar. In serie “Sada 1”, there were compared efficiencies of chosen type of solvent or solvent mixture by comparison of yields for 34 standardized analytes in a sample of biochar and a sample of sewage sludge. There were compared also to total yields of PAHs and to number of quantified compounds in analyzed samples. The most reliable extraction method has been used for the next analyses of samples in the second serie called “Sada 2”. In Sada 2, there were compared different samples of the same type (e.g. biochar, sludge). The origin of sewage sludge (small or big sewage treatment plant expressed as PE) and used additives (cellulose, chaff, hay) as modificators for torrefaction process were variables for different type of sample. The results of analysis were identification of the most suitable sewage sludge and additive to be used as modificator for microwave torrefaction process. The main goal of correctly chosen sludge and additive was to minimize production of PAH’s during torrefaction and in samples of biochar.
Assessment of the effectiveness of advanced oxidation processes via ecotoxicity tests
Procházková, Petra ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
Recently, an increasing problem in wastewater treatment is the insufficient removal of organic pollutants. These substances can be toxic to the environment already in a small amount, either acutely or chronically. The goal is therefore to develop of technologies that ensure their effective removal. One possibility is to use advanced oxidation processes. Advanced oxidation processes work on the principle of non-selective oxidation mediated by OH radicals. Several methods such as O3/H2O2 (Peroxone), UV/H2O2 or Fenton´s reaction can be used to generate them. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the effectiveness of the used advanced oxidation processes in wastewater treatment via ekotoxicity tests. Wastewater samples treated with advanced oxidation processes on the pilot unit showed low values of acute toxicity for selected test organisms (D. magna, T. platyurus, S. alba, L. minor). For the sample of waste water that was treated with the UV/H2O2 on AOP laboratory unit, there was an increase in acute toxicity on the testing organism D. magna and L. minor. The similar effect was observer in the tests with the D. magna with the model samples treated with the same method, while the tests on the L. minor showed a reduction in toxicity.
Determination of selected drugs in water
Tran Xuan, Tiep ; Švestková, Tereza (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
Submitted thesis tackles the problem of numerous of antibiotics in waste water. Specifically, trimethroprim azithromycin and clarithomycin. In all of those cases we are dealing with a massive ecological threat at hand, causing harm to the enviroment. To isolation the specific kind of antibiotics the method of SPE was chosen by prior consultation with the supervisor. The method of high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection was deemed superrior for the pinpointing of the exact pharmaceuticals in waste watters. The waste waters in and out flow was observed for twelve days with the maintainance of all necessary procedures listed above at water treatment plants Brno-Modřice.
Study of glyphosate degradation in water plasma application
Sehnalíková, Alena ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Mravcová, Ludmila (advisor)
This work deals with the current problem of increasing concentrations of glyphosate in groundwater and wastewater due to insufficient efficiency of methods used in wastewater treatment. From this point of view effective removing of glyphosate from water have to be developed by new methods and technological processes. The methods used so far in wastewater treatment plants should be replaced or supplemented by advanced oxidation processes. The practical part of this work is devoted to glyphosate and its degradation in water by plasma. Samples were taken sequentially during plasma application and further evaluated by LC/MS selected as suitable analytical methods. The aim of this work was to determine the efficiency of plasma in water with admixture of glyphosate.
Dissolved Air Flotation – From Pilot Plant to Full Scale Implementation
Dobiáš, Pavel ; Hlaváč, Jaroslav (referee) ; Janda,, Václav (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Dolejš, Petr (advisor)
The thesis deals with the use of dissolved air flotation (DAF) in water treatment technology in the Czech Republic. It summarizes the knowledge gained at pilot plant studies as well as the experience with full-scale flotation units which have been built in potable water treatment plants in the Czech Republic in years 2006-2018. This thesis provides a broad background of experimental studies of a modern separation process, which does have great advantages in the removal of natural organic matter and microorganisms from water in the drinking water treatment industry. In this thesis, there are presented some examples of the excellent efficiency of the microorganisms removal, both under the experimental conditions as well as water treatment plants, which were improved by DAF units installation in full scale. In addition to the high separation efficiency, it is shown, how DAF units could influence the subsequent separation steps as for example filtration through the granular media. The negative influence of the pre-ozonization on the DAF separation efficiency in Hradec Králové WTP is demonstrated too. The results of the pilot experiments support the idea, that the key condition for high removal efficiency is the optimal coagulation process chemistry. Design of pilot experiments was based on the factorial planning theory and some results are discussed in this thesis. The very big portion of the pilot experiments was made for estimating of the full-scale DAF design parameters before the water treatment plants reconstruction phase
Controlled Drug Release from Biodegradable Hydrogels.
Oborná, Jana ; Chýlková, Jaromíra (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Kučerík, Jiří (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This dissertation is focused on the controlled release of drugs from a biodegradable amphiphilic hydrogel based on hydrophobic poly(lactic acid), poly(glycolic acid) and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA, ABA) and its modification with itaconic anhydride (ITA). The resulting ,-itaconyl(PLGA-PEG-PLGA) copolymer is referred to as ITA/PLGA-PEG-PLGA/ITA or ITA/ABA/ITA. Itaconic acid provides reactive double bonds and a functional carboxyl group at the ends of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA copolymer chain, thereby rendering the modified ITA/ABA/ITA copolymer less hydrophobic and offering the possibility of forming a carrier for hydrophilic drug substances. These functional copolymers are thermosensitive and change in the external environment (e.g. temperature) causes a sol-gel phase transition due to the formation of micellar structure. The bioactive substances can thus be mixed with a copolymer which is in a low viscous phase (sol phase) and subsequently the mixture can be injected into patient's body at the target site where it forms a gel at 37 °C. This hydrogel becomes a drug depot, which gradually releases the active substance. Prediction of the substance’s release profile from the hydrogel is an effective tool to determine the frequency of administration, potentially enhancing efficacy, and assessment of side effects associated with dosing. The analgesic paracetamol and the sulfonamide antibiotic sulfathiazole were used as model drugs, representing hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, respectively. The active substances had a significant effect on the resulting hydrogel stiffness. Type of solvent, incubation medium and nanohydroxyapatite also influenced on the gel stiffness and subsequent stability of the hydrogel-drug system. Controlled release of drugs took place in simulated conditions of the human body. Verification of Korsmeyer-Peppas (KP) drug-release model is also discussed in this thesis. The KP model was found suitable for simulating the release of sulfathiazole from ABA and ITA/ABA/ITA hydrogels. On the contrary, the performance of KP model was not suitable for describing the release of paracetamol from the ABA hydrogels. Therefore, a new regression model suitable for both buffered simulated media and water has been proposed. The proposed model fitted better the release of both sulfathiazole and paracetamol from composite material prepared from ABA hydrogel and nanohydroxyapatite.
Ecotoxicological Assessment of Point Pollution in the Ecosystem
Doležalová, Šárka ; Beklová, Miroslava (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Koutný, Marek (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
The main subject of this dissertation is the ecotoxicological evaluation of significant point sources of pollution. These include wildfires and wide fires of factories and also industrial and urban wastewater treatment plants. The local application of pyrolytic product obtained from sewage sludge as the point source of pollution was also included in the thesis. Tests in aquatic and contact arrangement with using both water and soil organisms for ecotoxicity evaluation of selected matrices were chosen. Crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna Straus and sea bacteria Vibrio fischeri were selected as representative organisms of water animals. Duckweed Lemna minor was chosen as water plant. Further collembola Folsomia candida and earthworm Eisenia fetida were chosen as representatives of soil animals. Finally onion Allium cepa L. and mustard Sinapis alba are representatives of terrestrial plants. Submitted thesis deals about analytes of interest, their properties and ways of distribution to the environments. The output of the thesis is a comprehensive assessment of the effects of selected point sources of pollution on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems organisms and ecotoxicological risks assessment. The fire extinguishing agents have been proven to be the most stressful substances for all selecteded organisms.
Determination of substances content in mint
Novotná, Martina ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This Bachelor thesis deals with determination of the content substances in mint (Mentha). Mint is in pharmacy very popular herb, it is been used for over 2000 years. We know many species of mint. Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is the most favorite and most common species. In the theoretical part there is description of substances found in plants, the characteristic of mint and principles of used analytical methods. Practical part of this thesis describes substances found in examined teas.

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See also: similar author names
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8 VÁVROVÁ, Michaela
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1 Vávrová, Milena
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