National Repository of Grey Literature 33 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Prevent the big water. Flood control measures issued by public administrative bodies in the late 18th century Bohemia.
Hudeček, Ondřej ; Himl, Pavel (advisor) ; Tinková, Daniela (referee) ; Maur, Eduard (referee)
During the winter of 1783-1784, practically all European states were struck by severe floods. These natural disasters challenged the state bodies and their ability to cope with exceptional situations. At the time, administrative bodies in the Czech lands were undergoing numerous and substantial reforms designed in the spirit of enlightened absolutism to improve efficiency and thus contribute to the "greater good". The aim of all these reforms was to bring security to the lives of people and promote its quality, because this brought advantages for the whole state. Based on an analysis of the preserved archive sources and newspapers examines present dissertation the formation of the state flood prevention in Bohemia in the late eighteen century. From general point of view the aim of my dissertation is to help to better understand the modernisation process in the era of Enlightenment. It departs, i.a. from the findings of French philosopher Michel Foucault and his concept of biopolitics. The dissertation analyses some concrete examples of this biopolitics, such as the struggle of state bodies against every possible irregularity, contingency and risk, that could endangered the wealth of state and its inhabitants, health of people and the social order, promotion of "love for human beings"...
The Journal Religion und Priester. An Effort to Analyse the Publicistic Discourse of Catholic Theologians during the Reforms of Josephinism.
Pěček, Vít ; Zdichynec, Jan (advisor) ; Tinková, Daniela (referee)
1 Abstract (in English): The Bachelor thesis deals with the journal Religion und Priester, which was published between 1782 and 1784 in Prague and then in Vienna. This periodical was probably the first religious journal in the lands of the Crown of Bohemia, however, it was not an orthodox Catholic journal. The work concentrates at first on external characterization, subsequently it tries to solve the complicated question of the authorship of the journal during its first phase. Space is also dedicated to Franz Xaver Huber, the main editor and the personality with the very interesting life career. The core of the thesis consists in the analysis of the religious thought in the Religion und Priester, which was powerfully influenced by the Enlightenment and Josephinism. The goal of the authors was the cleansing of the religion, mainly the Catholic, the "enlightenment" of the people and the unification of Christian denominations. Besides that, they criticize the monastic life, celibacy, or papacy, and they demand some other principal changes in the Catholic Church. The next chapter describes a few contemporary reflexions concerning the analysed periodical. At the end the author speculates about the main tendencies in the journal - about the "naturalism", etatism, or "secondary Christianity".
Social intercourse in the 18th century from the perspective of the conduct books
Hubáčková, Pavla ; Tinková, Daniela (advisor) ; Smyčka, Václav (referee)
Based on the 18th century German-written conduct books, this bachelor thesis studies strategies that were recommended to the then readers in pursuit of successful life; what was or was not acceptable, what parts of human behaviour they paid attention to, and how the individual authors' perspectives differed. The thesis centres around Karl Heinrich Seibt'sKlugheitslehre, examined by content analysis and compared to other literature. It also defines some of the concepts found in the conduct books, such as politeness or cleverness.
Tumours in historical and social context in the modern period
Hrudka, Jan ; Komárek, Stanislav (advisor) ; Tinková, Daniela (referee) ; Stingl, Josef (referee)
Univerzita Karlova v Praze Přírodovědecká fakulta Studijní program: Filosofie a dějiny přírodních věd MUDr. Jan Hrudka Nádory v dějinném a kulturním kontextu v novověku Tumours in historical and social context in the modern period Disertační práce Školitel / Supervisor: Prof. RNDr. Stanislav Komárek, Dr. Praha, 2017 SUMMARY: The PhD thesis called Tumours in historical and social context in the modern period is an attempt to describe a change of medical thinking in modern period; science and medicine turns from antique humoral pathology, explaining all diseases as an imbalance of the four body humours, to pathological anatomy and experimental physiology. In the point of view of pathological anatomy, the viscera of diseased person are no more "screen" or "mirror" of the disease, but it becomes directly the "stage" or "theatre" of the acting disease. This shift in the thought may be labelled as movement from humoralism to localism or ontologism; the disease isn't just abnormal amount of some natural juice any more, but becomes new original entity. This change undergoes the understanding of tumours and cancerous disease as well. Instead of antique understanding tumours as precipitates of black bile, the cell theory occurs in the 19th century. This theory explains tumours as a mass of cells undergoing excessive...
The Historical Imagination of Late Enlightenment.
Smyčka, Václav ; Činátl, Kamil (advisor) ; Maur, Eduard (referee) ; Tinková, Daniela (referee)
The dissertation deals with the transformations of historiography and perception of the historical time in the last third of 18th and at the beginning of the 19th centuries. The central questions it investigates are: How has the way of locating (Czech) society in time changed? How did representations of past fundamentally change between 1760s and 1820s, in the era of the so-called "Sattelzeit"? What is the relationship between these changes and the way in which history was represented? What impact did the changes of media, book markets, and culture of reading have in this time? What are the political and aesthetic consequences of these changes? The answer to these questions is found in five fundamental innovations of Enlightenment historiography. These innovations (understood according to Niklas Luhmann's system theory in order to reduce complexity) - fundamentally influenced the way in which late Enlightenment thinkers conceptualized the flow of historical time and the praxis of historiography. It is about the spread of cumulative concepts of knowledge in historia litteraria related to the growth of book markets, narrativisation of the historical experience (as a result of emergence of the newly incoming fictional genres of the historical novels),, philosophy of history as a new idealistic...
Crime and Punishment in the Eyes of Cesare Beccaria: An Analysis of an Enlightenment Penal Law Reform
Bojar, Tomáš ; Sokol, Jan (advisor) ; Wintr, Jan (referee) ; Tinková, Daniela (referee)
Crime and Punishment in the Eyes of Cesare Beccaria An Analysis of an Enlightenment Penal Law Reform The Ph.D. dissertation is centred around a relatively concise, but extremely influential book: Cesare Beccaria's treatise On Crimes and Punishments (Dei delitti e delle pene). This work, first published in 1764, sums up in a clear, yet intellectually penetrating way all the main Enlightenment principles of a complex penal law reform. In its time, the book was not only of great philosophical importance and it not only changed the way western societies perceived crime and punishment, but it also served as a concrete guideline for various penal law reformers. It is therefore by no means an overstatement to say that it caused a true paradigm shift in both legal and moral philosophy. The main aim of the thesis is to give a legal-philosophical account of Beccaria's thoughts on crime and punishment, to examine their historical as well as moral background and show the actual impact they had on the legislation of many different, mainly European states. The first chapters of the dissertation are focused on Beccaria's life, his intellectual background and his formative influences (particularly the French, English and Scottish Enlightenment, the social contract theory, utilitarianism, Montesquieu's thoughts on penal...
History of Pathological Anatomy (17th.-19th. Centuries)
Liepoldová, Tereza ; Tinková, Daniela (advisor) ; Hrudka, Jan (referee)
This thesis concisely describes transformation of medical way of thinking in Eu- rope from hippocrato-galenic tradition to anatomo-pathological understanding of human body. It aims to trace conditions, that allowed rise of organic and later tissual pathology. Thesis also shows ideological shift in medical thinking concer- ning localization faculties of soul (shift from so called ventricular paradigm to localization faculties of soul into solid parts of brain). These ideas also affected reception of causes of mental illness. 1
The Image of Maximilien Robespierre in the Thermidorian Discourse
Křivánková, Alena ; Klusáková, Luďa (advisor) ; Tinková, Daniela (referee)
The bachelor thesis The Image of Maximilien Robespierre in the Thermidorian Discourse deals with the way Robespierre was described during the era of the Thermidorian Convention (1794 - 1795) and how his image was politically used. The main sources of information are political pamphlets. The first part illustrates the image of the Thermidorian coup and its subsequent legitimization. The second part discusses the personality of Robespierre, symbolizing the embodiment of a certain approach to power and the revolutionary terror, and shows the connection between this notion and political alterations which were taking place in the revolutionary France at that time. The third one characterizes the struggles between Thermidorian left and right wing, and shows, how the image of Robespierre and the denomination "robespierristes" was used during this fight. As a result the negative image of Robespierre was gradually connected to the negative image of Thermidorian left as to the negative image of the Mountain Convention period, whereas it was used to support and legitimize a political turn to the right. Meanwhile, which image of Robespierre prevailed, is given precisely by the victory of the right. Key words: Maximilien Robespierre - French Revolution - Thermidor - propaganda
Creatures of Science, Living Models and the Construction of Scientific Communities
Stella, Marco ; Hermann, Tomáš (advisor) ; Tinková, Daniela (referee) ; Janko, Jan (referee)
Creatures of Science. Living Models and the Construction of Scientific Communities. Marco Stella The present thesis, which is to be understood as a contribution both to history and anthropology of science, deals with the relationship of the construction and emergence of scientific communities and the use of models in science, or construction of new forms of knowledge. We deal primary with the history of life sciences, especially behavioral sciences, which formed in the beginning of the 20th century as a relatively independent a scientific field and a rather heterogeneous platform for a common research of life utterances and cognition of man and other animals. The thesis focuses mainly on living models, often used biological and psychological research. Using Latour's concepts of modernity and hybridity, the thesis points at the hybridizing effect of behavioral sciences (the model always shapes and creates the modelled) and also at their ways of human and animal images. The second often serve as a basis for constructing the second. I also discuss some the ways how implicit model properties, which influence the (seemingly) isolated sphere of science, affect the chances of a community for becoming a discipline. On three examples from the history of life sciences, i.e. the unsuccessful institutionalization of...

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