National Repository of Grey Literature 7 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The Principle of Double Effect
Černý, David ; Payne, Jan (advisor) ; Machula, Tomáš (referee) ; Vohánka, Vlastimil (referee)
The principle of double effect has a very long history and continues to play an important role in ethical and bioethical discussions. However, the principle has been subject of incessant debates in the last few decades and many ethicists and bioethicists have explicitly denied its validity and applicability to solving important moral dilemmas. Many authors endorsing consequentialism have claimed that the principle of double effect, based on an intention-sensitive ethics, is not valid as a moral principle. Their rejection of the validity of this principle follows a well- established ethical tradition according to which intentions have no role in the moral evaluation of human actions. This dissertation has three overall aims: i) It aims at showing, in the course of textual analysis and interpretation of Aquinas's œuvre complete, that Thomas Aquinas was indeed the first author who explicitly discusses actions with one good and one bad effect and can be therefore considered the founding father of all subsequent moral tradition endorsing the principle of double effect. ii) Secondly, it demonstrates that from a historical point of view it is inadequate to continue to talk about "the principle of double effect". In the moral tradition from 13th century to present days more than one principle of double effect...
Ethical concerns involving the care of infants at the threshold of viability
Zlatohlávková, Blanka ; Payne, Jan (advisor) ; Hoza, Jozef (referee) ; Kuře, Josef (referee)
Introduction: Resuscitation and intensive care from the 26 weeks of gestation is usually mandatory in developed countries because infants born at this week have a very high chance of survival without severe disabilities. The period between the 22-25 week of gestation is known as the grey zone, during which the results of care are uncertain and unpredictable in advance. Thesis: Decision-making about offering intensive care at the threshold of viability is done in uncertainty, whether or not such treatment is at the best interest of the newborn, for out of principle, it is impossible to predict whether the infant will survive at all and if so, if it will continue to live without severe disability. Viability of the fetus and the newborn: Determining the threshold of viability (the ability to survive outside the uterus) is the initial point in considering medical treatment. Viability depends - aside from the level of maturity of the fetus and its health condition - on the advancement of medical technology. It is also based upon given socio-economical, and cultural factors. The threshold of viability in regard of the possibility to be born alive and survive lies between the 22-24 weeks. An expert agreement on providing active care is based upon the probability of survival and survival without serious...
Women's Free Will in the Caesarean Section Indication
Křepelka, Petr ; Payne, Jan (advisor) ; Šimek, Jiří (referee) ; Calda, Pavel (referee)
Currently, Caesarean section is the most commonly indicated procedure. The proportion of caesarean deliveries continues to rise and the spectrum of surgical indications has broadened dramatically. This contemplation focuses on the ethical dilemmas arising during the indication of a Caesarean section: a refusal of a Caesarean section by a pregnant woman when there is a rationally-empirical indication and an enforced Caesarean section. The importance of the woman free will in the process of operating indication closely relates to the issue of the Caesarean section upon request. The assessment of the ethical acceptability of the individual surgical indications is performed on the grounds of confrontation of the pregnant woman's dignity and the dignity of human fetus and subsequently by reflections on theoretical duties and resulting parental responsibilities on the one hand and the right to self-determination of a pregnant women on the other. The fetal dignity is given by its value, attributed to it by the pregnant woman and by the human society. It has always been inferior to the dignity of a pregnant woman. Determining of specific positive duties a pregnant woman has towards the fetus is a very controversial issue and it is impossible to codify them legally despite the unquestionable social character of a...
Psychosocial Problems of Patients with Myasthenia Gravis
Hromířová, Kristýna ; Hejzlarová, Lenka (advisor) ; Payne, Jan (referee)
The thesis is focused on the psychosocial problems of patients with myastheia gravis. Theoretical part of the work is focuses on disease Myasthenia gravis, on process how the patients suffer crisis situation owing to rise diasease. Psychosocial area at a sudennly incurred disease - myasthenia gravis. Thanks to the analysis of semi-structured dialogues with the neurologic intensive unit patients, how factors are help for their, how are they have relation at therapeutics and have they sufficiency information.
The Idea of Gene and some of It's Ethical Consequences
Franková, Věra ; Payne, Jan (advisor) ; Brdička, Radim (referee) ; Križan, Peter (referee)
The term gene was coined in 1909 by Wilhelm Johannsen to designate theoretical unit of genetic analysis. Concept of the gene has changed over time due to progress in genetics and its experimental practice. Currently used molecular concept is based on linear correspondence between DNA sequence and its product (Waters 2007). It also describes gene as discrete physical structure - DNA segment with clearly defined boundaries. But the investigation of wide range of genomes has put the molecular concept of gene into doubt. The aim of PhD thesis is to specify the term gene by employing mechanical, semantic and hermeneutic interpretation (Payne 2002, 101-124). It summarizes history of the gene and presents some of the biological findings that undermine the molecular concept. In biological context the gene is always connected to DNA molecule. But it can be shown that DNA functions only as a mediator or carrier, and the substance of gene is not material but it has a character of information. Therefore in the semantic view the gene is information containing instruction for development of phenotypic trait which is specified by medical or other theoretical interest. Hermeneutical interpretation of the gene can be point out in clinical genetics. Here the gene is also information containing instruction for development of...

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